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Table of Contents
                            TOC
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
FOREWORD
INTRODUCTION
Section One: THE WORLD OF THE DINOSAURS
Ch1: THE MIDDLE AND LATE JURASSIC EPOCHS
Section Two: JURASSIC DINOSAURS
Ch 2: THE SAUROPODS: HERBIVOROUS GIANTS THE SAUROPODS:
Ch 3: THEROPOD DIVERSITY: GIANT PREDATORY DINOSAURS
Ch 4: ARMORED AND PLATED DINOSAURS:ORNITHISCHIAN INNOVATIONS
CONCLUSION
APPENDIX ONE: GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE
APPENDIX TWO: POSITIONAL TERMS
GLOSSARY
CHAPTER BIBLIOGRAPHY
FURTHER READING
PICTURE CREDITS
INDEX
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

TIME OF
THE GIANTS

TIME OF
THE GIANTS

THE MIDDLE &
LATE JURASSIC EPOCHS

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(continues)

identities and the location of the fossils. Once a deal was struck, they
revealed themselves as W.E. Carlin and W.H. Reed.

Marsh sent his best men to the newly discovered fossil site in Wyo-
ming. The bone bed came to be called by the name of the place they were
found: Como Bluff. The dinosaur bones were spread across six miles of
rocky terrain, and many individual quarries were dug across this expanse.
Although not as densely packed with bones as some other, smaller sites,
Como Bluff still ranks as one of the most plentiful dinosaur deposits ever
discovered. Marsh’s team of workers remained at Como Bluff for more
than six years. They removed ton after ton of dinosaur bones. By the time
they were done, nearly 500 crates of dinosaur bones had been shipped
from Como Bluff to New Haven.

Marsh named more than two dozen new dinosaurs from these
remains, including some of the most famous dinosaurs of all. Several long-
necked dinosaurs were found at Como Bluff, including “Brontosaurus”
(now known as Apatosaurus, or “deceptive lizard”); Diplodocus (“double-
beam”); Camarasaurus (“chamber lizard”); and Barosaurus (“heavy
lizard”). Perhaps the strangest dinosaur the Marsh team found was
Stegosaurus (“plated lizard”), the plant eater with a double row of large,
triangular plates on its back and spikes on its tail. A large predator was
also found at the site, the equally familiar Allosaurus (“different lizard”).

The great dinosaur bone rush that began with Cope and Marsh in 1877
occupied the two men until their deaths in the 1890s. The fierce competi-
tion between Cope and Marsh led to many new dinosaur discoveries but
produced many mistakes as well. Of the 149 dinosaur species named by
Cope and Marsh, only 37 are accepted by paleontologists today. Many of
the species that Cope and Marsh thought were new have proved to be
different individuals belonging to the same species. Some of this confu-
sion happened because dinosaur science was so new. These two men
were unearthing a parade of strange creatures that had never been seen

the sauropods: herbivorous giants 77

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78 time of the giants

to all forms of sauropods. It appears that sauropods with shorter
forelimbs, short dorsal vertebrae, a center of gravity in the area of
the pelvis, and strong tails might have been able to do this. The tall
brachiosaurs, however, with their long front limbs, probably were
unable to achieve this stance as it is sometimes pictured in mov-­
ies and other dinosaur artwork. For such an animal to get its head
aloft in such a way would mean that blood pumped from the heart
would have to travel a long distance, against gravity, to get to the
brain; there is no known anatomical means of enabling this without
the animal’s having a heart so large that it would have filled half the
body cavity. Thus, even if sauropods could rear up like this, they
probably didn’t stay aloft for more than a few seconds; otherwise,
they would have fainted!

Another factor that contributed to the locomotion of sauropods
was the interrelatedness of the mass and strength of their bones
and their respiratory system. Interestingly, both of these aspects
of dinosaur biology were intimately related through adaptations of
sauropod vertebrae. Sauropod limbs were indeed dense and heavy
skeletal elements, all the better to support their enormous body
masses. Such was not the case with sauropod vertebrae: Throughout

before. They were bound to make some mistakes— and science, after all,
is an ongoing series of discoveries that improve on previous knowledge.
Error— and the correction of error— are vital parts of science. Cope and
Marsh opened up a vast, new frontier to the study of dinosaurs. In so
doing, they also laid the foundation for future expeditions by other scien-
tists who learned from the mistakes of these two feuding professors.

(continued)

(continued from page 73)

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154 time of the giants

V
Valdes, Paul J., 26
Velociraptor, 96, 104
Vertebral columns,

43–44, 53, 59, 109–110
Vicariance

biogeography, 31–32
Vision, 95–96, 106

Von Meyer, Hermann,
105

Vulcanodon, 21, 42, 46

W
Warm-­ bloodedness,

66–73
Wilson, Jeff rey, 46

Y
Yangchuanosaurus, 93
Yates, Adam, 42

Z
Zallinger, Rudolf, 40
Zhiming, Dong, 93
Ziegler, Alfred M., 26

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
thom hoLmes is a writer specializing in natural history subjects
and dinosaurs. He is noted for his expertise on the early history of
dinosaur science in America. He was the publications director of
The Dinosaur Society for six years (1991–1997) and the editor of its
newsletter, Dino Times, the world’s only monthly publication devoted
to news about dinosaur discoveries. It was through the Society and
his work with the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia that
Thom developed widespread contacts and working relationships
with paleontologists and paleo-­ artists throughout the world.

Thom’s published works include Fossil Feud: The Rivalry of Amer-­
ica’s First Dinosaur Hunters (Silver Burdett Press, September 1997);
The Dinosaur Library (Enslow, 2001–2002); Duel of the Dinosaur
Hunters (Pearson Education, 2002); Fossil Feud: The First American
Dinosaur Hunters (Silver Burdett/Julian Messner, 1997). His many
honors and awards include the National Science Teachers Associ-­
ation’s Outstanding Science Book of 1998, VOYA’s 1997 Nonfiction
Honor List, an Orbis Pictus Honor, and the Chicago Public Library
Association’s “Best of the Best” in science books for young people.

Thom did undergraduate work in geology and studied paleontol-­
ogy through his role as a staff educator with the Academy of Natural
Sciences in Philadelphia. He is a regular participant in field explora-­
tion, with two recent expeditions to Patagonia in association with
Canadian, American, and Argentinian universities.

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