Download Agricultural Science for CSEC Examinations PDF

TitleAgricultural Science for CSEC Examinations
Tags Agriculture Academic Degree Livestock Veterinary Physician
File Size8.6 MB
Total Pages393
Table of Contents
                            Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
Page 25
Page 26
Page 27
Page 28
Page 29
Page 30
Page 31
Page 32
Page 33
Page 34
Page 35
Page 36
Page 37
Page 38
Page 39
Page 40
Page 41
Page 42
Page 43
Page 44
Page 45
Page 46
Page 47
Page 48
Page 49
Page 50
Page 51
Page 52
Page 53
Page 54
Page 55
Page 56
Page 57
Page 58
Page 59
Page 60
Page 61
Page 62
Page 63
Page 64
Page 65
Page 66
Page 67
Page 68
Page 69
Page 70
Page 71
Page 72
Page 73
Page 74
Page 75
Page 76
Page 77
Page 78
Page 79
Page 80
Page 81
Page 82
Page 83
Page 84
Page 85
Page 86
Page 87
Page 88
Page 89
Page 90
Page 91
Page 92
Page 93
Page 94
Page 95
Page 96
Page 97
Page 98
Page 99
Page 100
Page 101
Page 102
Page 103
Page 104
Page 105
Page 106
Page 107
Page 108
Page 109
Page 110
Page 111
Page 112
Page 113
Page 114
Page 115
Page 116
Page 117
Page 118
Page 119
Page 120
Page 121
Page 122
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

ri

._cam:;- . s

:\ uur/.o -

TT{ {

Agricultural
Science

for CSEC ® Examinations
Ronald Ramharacksingh

MACMILLAN Series Editor: Dr Mike Taylor

Page 2

Agricutural I

Science

for CSEG ® hmutigHs

Ronald Ramharacksingh

CSEC is a registered trade mark of the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC).

Agricultural Science jr CSEC Examinations is an independent publication and has not been

authorised, sponsored, or otherwise approved by CXC.

MACMILLAN

Page 196

Weeds
Crop

diseases
Pest and
disease

management

Cultivation of
vegetable crops

Cropping
systems

ngi
acteri;
ruses

Types

Effect on
crops

Weed
control

Crop production
activities

Cost analysis

Integrated Pest

Management (IPM)

ixed cropping
tercropping
op rotation
lased cropping
rip/contour croppi
ixed farming
ever cropping

V

^^^IIIII III IIIt111t1U
mmmn.n..............

1111

Cro hosbaodr
P

By the end of 3 describe cropping systems
this chapter ,/ describe cultural practices associated with crop production

you should be / evaluate the benefits of different cultural practices
able to: / understand the nature of weeds and their effect on crops

3 describe different ways in which weeds can be controlled
3 name different pests and discuss the damage they cause to crops
3 describe how major crop diseases are transmitted
3 identify appropriate methods of managing pests and diseases in crops
3 discuss the use of chemicals in the environment
3 grow a selection of crops
3 state why plant quarantine is necessa ry .

Concept map
Crop husband ry

Cultural
practices

moulding
mulching
staking
pruning

Pests

Damage caused
by biting and

chewing pests

varieties

Chemicals in the
environment

Pollution:
atmosphere
groundwater
eutrophication

Importance of
plant quarantine

Damage caused
by piercing and
sucking pests

186

Page 197

2 Crop husbandry

12.1 Cropping systems
cropping system ► A cropping system is a way of growing a crop or a range of crops. The major

cropping systems used by crop farmers include:
• monoculture
• multiple cropping or mixed cropping
• intercropping
• crop rotation
• phased cropping
• strip cropping
• contour ploughing
• mixed farming
• cover cropping.

Sometimes a combination of cropping systems may be used, depending on the
nature of the land, the size of the farm and the type of crop production. For example,
a mixed farm on hilly terrain might use contour cropping, mixed cropping and
cover cropping.

Monoculture
monoculture ► Monoculture is the continuous cultivation

and production of only one crop on a plot
of land for many years. A good example
is the cultivation of sugar cane. This type
of system can lead to a build-up and rapid
spread of pests and diseases which attack
the crop, e.g. froghopper infestations and
smut disease in sugar cane.

Monoculture is a risky business for the
farmer because he has invested a lot of
effort into growing only one crop. Failure

specialised in the cultivation of a specific

Figure 12.1 Monoculture — here
sugar cane is being grown to the
exclusion of other crops.

of the crop can result in severe economic1
loss. However, some farmers have become

crop, such as rice, pineapple or pawpaw.
moo

monoculture.
ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of

The farmer needs to invest in the machinery required for the cultivation, harvesting
State and preparation for market of the chosen crop. For example, monoculture of sugar

cane demands investment in a sugar cane combine harvester.

List FOUR major cropping systems practised
locally or regionally.

multiple cropping ►

Multiple cropping
Multiple cropping (also called mixed cropping) refers to the cultivation of two or
more crops simultaneously on the same plot of land. It is generally practised by
peasant farmers. This type of cropping system provides income on a regular and
continuous basis for the farmer.

The crops are chosen carefully so that:
• some crops have a shorter growing period and others a longer growing period
• crops grow to different heights
• some are deep-rooted and others shallower-rooted
• the water and nutrient requirements of the crops are not the same.

The benefits of this type of cropping include:
• an improvement in, or maintenance of, soil fertility, irrigation and drainage
• easier management of pest control and a reduction in pest infestations
• easier management of fertiliser application and weed control

187

Page 392

Index

produce co-operatives 73
producers (plants) 104
production 42-3

factors 44-7
records 82-3, 85
see also agricultural production;

animal production;
crop production; food
production

production ration 238
products

from animals 301-4
choice of 81
primary and secondary 43
substitutes 44

professional services 43
profit 49
profit and loss account 84
progeny testing 270
Project Implementation Unit 8
propagation 350-3

artificial 154, 156
horticultural plants 312, 313,

314
omamentals 315

propagator 154
propolis 293, 295
proteins 236
protozoa 104, 196
proventriculus 226, 227
pruning 190, 313
pseudo-ruminants 231
pullorum 290
purchasing co-operatives 73

qualifications 4, 6, 9, 10
quality control 5
quality grades 332
quarantine, plant 203-4
quasi-stationary front 130

rabbits
breeds 264, 265
brooding and rearing 288
digestion in 231
gestation 273
housing requirements 255,

358, 364
kindling 274
pests and diseases 291
production records 83

radicle 150, 158, 159
rain gauge 127
rainfall 106, 127, 129

effect on crops 126
effect on farming 131
and plant growth 167

rainy season 106, 115, 126, 131,
244

ration 238-9, 244, 289, 322
rats 193
recessive allele 178, 266, 268
records see farm records
rectum 227, 229, 230
recycling, waste materials 32
refrigeration 218

Regional Administration
Divisions 8

regional institutions, agricultural
development 9-10

regional plans, agricultural
development 3

religious beliefs, consumers 44
rendzina 96
rennin 182
reproductive stage, growth 164
reproductive systems, farm

animals 323-4
Research Division 8
research workers 4
residual pesticides 197
respiration 105, 164-5
reticulum 228, 229, 230
returns 49-51
Rhizobium 105
rhizomes 148, 153, 157
ribosomes 175
ricin 23
ridging 116, 349-50
rills 115
ring placement 344
risk 71, 75
rocks, types of 107-8
root crops, cultivation 201-2
root cuttings 154
root system 146
roots 147, 154

osmosis 165
roses 315
rotational grazing 241, 243
rotovator 137
royal jelly 292, 296
rumen 228, 229, 230
ruminants 228, 229, 230
runners 153
rural infrastructure 17
rural-to-urban drift 17

safety equipment 139, 140
safety precautions

during food processing 333
tools and machinery 139-40
using herbicides 193

sales and marketing careers 4
saliva 229, 230
saltation 115
salting 331
sand 97, 98, 99, 103
sanitary certification 20
sauerkraut 220
scarification 158
scion 155, 156, 157
scrotum 323
secondary production 43
secondary products 43
secondary tillage 133, 347-8
security 71
sedimentary rocks 107
seed banks 181
seed (flowering) plants 145, 151
seedbeds 160-1, 353-4
seedboxes 159, 353
seeders 135

seedlings 159-61
thinning out 162, 354-5
transplanting 163

seeds 150, 152, 156
buying good quality 191
germination 157-9
for lawns 317
sowing 159-61, 162
from weeds 190, 191

selective breeding 175, 180
selective herbicides 192
self-pollination 151
semen 270-1
seminal vesicles 323
service co-operatives 73
service industry jobs 5
service investments 72
services 42, 43

free movement of 63
sexual reproduction 178

animals 272, 273
crops/plants 151-2, 156

sharecropping 45
sheep

breeds 264, 265, 324
clones 277-8
meat cuts 303
pest and disease management

326
rearing 324-6
reproduction 272, 273

shelf life 213
shoot system 146
short-day plants 167
short-term planning 81
shrubs 145
side placement 343
signs of heat 272-3
silage 239, 245, 247-8
silos 247
silt 97, 98, 99, 103
silting up 115
silviculture 108
simple fertilisers 109, I 1 1
simple leaves 148
slaughter 305, 306
slurry 110
smallholdings 45
smallpox 22
smoking, food 331
snuffles 291
soil

aeration 98, 101
components and structure

96-8
disinfection and sterilisation

159, 197
formation 92-4
GAPs relating to 26
microorganisms in 104
organisms in 94, 101
pH 103-4
potting soil 159, 160, 161
temperature 101, 106
and water conservation 117-18

soil amendments 108, 110-12
techniques in applying 345-6

soil creep 115
soil erosion 25, 114, 115-16, 117
soil fertility 106-8

loss of 45
maintaining 110-12
in organic farming 36
and plant growth 168

soil horizons 95
soil management 116-17

organic farming 36
soil nutrients 101-3
soil profile 95-6
sore hocks 291
Sou-Sou groups 70
sowing seeds 159-61, 162
soya sauce 220
space requirements, poultry

356-7
species diversity 21, 35
Speedling trays 160, 161
sperm 270, 273
spongy mesophyll 149
spray pastures 369
spraying farm animals 369-70
sprigs 317
staking 190
stamens 151
starch 164
stem cuttings 154
stems 146, 148
sterilisation 301

soil 159, 197
Stevenson screen 128
stigma 151
stock (consumables) 69
stock (plant) 155, 156
stocking rate 241, 242
stolons 153
stomach 228, 229
stomata 148, 149, 165
storage tanks 117
strip cropping 117, 188, 189
strip grazing 242, 243-4
Stylosanthes 246
sublimation 219
subsidies 56, 75-6
subsoil 95
suckers 153
sugar cane 187, 193
Sugar Cane Feeds Centre 258
sulphate of ammonia 113
sulphur 102, 237
sulphur dioxide 24
sun, weathering due to 93
sunlight, and plant growth 167-8
super (bee housing) 257
supply 53-4, 55
supporting 44
surrogates 276-7
sustainable land use 19
swarming 292
systemic herbicides 192
systemic pesticides 197

table eggs 301, 359
tanner grass 245
tap roots 147

378

Page 393

Index

tariffs 3, 11, 63
taxation 56, 75
team management 72
technical services 43
temperature

effects on farming 131
for germination 157
measuring 128
and plant growth 167
soil 101, 107

tenant farmers 19, 45
termite 194
terracing 117
test cross 179
testa 150, 157
testes 323
thermometers 128
thinning out 162, 354-5
tillage 100, 112, 132-3

minimum 116
primary and secondary 132,

133, 347-8
tissue culture 156, 157
tomatoes 146, 201, 210
tongue layering 154-5
tools

care and maintenance 138, 350
safety precautions 139-40

top bar hive 256
topography 16-17, 45

and soil fertility 107
total cost 48
Total Digestive Nutrients (TDN)

239
total output 49, 50
toxicity, pesticides 199
tractors 136-7

attachments 137, 211
safety precautions 140
in tillage 132, 133

trade barriers 3, 62, 63, 64
trade liberalisation 3, 11
traditional farming 32
trailer 137

training centres 18
translocation 166
transpiration 165, 168
transplanters 135
transplanting, seedlings 163
trees 145
Trichantaera 247
Trinidad and Tobago

minimum wage policy 46
Ministry of Agriculture 6, 8
National Marketing and

Development Corporation
62

price support 75
tropical marine climate 126
trough culture 35
tsunamis 24
tubers 153, 157
turf, for lawns 317, 362-4

UHT treatment 218, 330
uncertainty 71, 75
unicellular organisms 175
units of output 48, 50
Universal Indicator 104
University of the West Indies

(UWI)6,9,311
upgrading 267-8
urban farming 35
urethra 323
uterus 324

vacuole 175
vacuum packaging 306
vagina 324
value-added products 333-5
variable costs 48
variable inputs 48, 49, 50
variation 177-8, 181
varieties 181, 267

ornamentals 315
varroasis 294
vas deferens 323
vascular tissue 147, 148, 149

vectors 194
vegetable crops

cultivation 200-3
see also individual vegetables

vegetative cover 116-17
vegetative organs 152, 153
vegetative stage, growth 163-4
veterinarians 4
viable seed 157
villi 230
viruses 104, 196

causing poultry diseases 290-1
crop diseases from 195
in gene transfer 278
resistance to 182

vitamins 237, 244
viticulturists 4
volcanic eruptions 24, 25, 94
vulva 324

warm front 130
waste materials, recycling 32
water

in composting 113
conservation 117-18
GAPs relating to 26
for germination 157
in photosynthesis and

respiration 164
soil erosion by 115
soil water 96, 97-8
in transpiration 165
watering lawns 318
weathering due to 92, 93

water pollution 24, 25, 199
water storage systems 117-18
weaning 325
weather

forecasting 126, 129
fronts 129, 130
records 129-31
see also climate

weathering 92-3
websites 18

weed control 191-3, 198
horticultural plants 312, 313,

314
organic farming 37
ornamentals 316
vegetable crops 201, 202, 203

weevil 194
weight to age relationship 305
wells 118
wet season 16
white fly 194
white scours 326
wholesalers 44
wilting 97-8, 163, 165
wind 107

hurricanes 24, 25, 126, 131
soil erosion due to 115, 117
weathering due to 92

wind-breaks 117
wind-pollination 152
wind strength, symbols 129
windrows 132
wine-making 220-1
working capital 47, 69
World Trade Organisation (WTO)

63-4
wound treatment 366-7

xylem 147, 148, 149, 166

yam, harvesting 211
yeast 220, 221
yield

carcass 332
crops 83, 181, 198
see also output; returns

Zebu cattle 264, 266, 269
zero grazing 241, 243, 245
zinc 109, 237
zygote 152, 177, 273

379

Similer Documents