Download Andrew Heywood - Global Politics PDF

TitleAndrew Heywood - Global Politics
Author
TagsGlobal Politics
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.6 MB
Total Pages585
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Contents
List of Illustrative Material
Preface
Acknowledgements
1 Introducing Global Politics
	WHAT IS GLOBAL POLITICS?
		What's in a name?
		From international politics to global politics
		Globalization and its implications
	LENSES ON GLOBAL POLITICS
		Mainstream perspectives
		Critical perspectives
	CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN GLOBAL POLITICS
		Power
		Security
		Justice
	USING THIS BOOK
2 Historical Context
	MAKING OF THE MODERN WORLD
		From ancient to modern
		Rise of the West
		Age of imperialism
	THE 'SHORT' TWENTIETH CENTURY: 1914–90
		Origins of World War I
		Road to World War II
		End of Empires
		Rise and fall of the Cold War
	THE WORLD SINCE 1990
		A 'new world order'?
		9/11 and the 'war on terror'
		Shifting balances within the global economy
3 Theories of Global Politics
	MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES
		Realism
		Liberalism
	CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES
		Marxism, neo-Marxism and critical theory
		Social constructivism
		Poststructuralism
		Feminism
		Green politics
		Postcolonialism
	THINKING GLOBALLY
		Challenge of interconnectedness
		Cosmopolitanism
		Paradigms: enlightening or constraining?
4 The Economy in a Global Age
	CAPITALISM AND NEOLIBERALISM
		Capitalisms of the world
		Triumph of neoliberalism
		Implications of neoliberalism
	ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION
		Causes of economic globalization
		How globalized is economic life?
	GLOBAL CAPITALISM IN CRISIS
		Explaining booms and slumps
		Lessons of the Great Crash
		Modern crises and 'contagions'
5 The State and Foreign Policy in a Global Age
	STATES AND STATEHOOD IN FLUX
		States and sovereignty
		The state and globalization
		State transformation
		Return of the state
	NATIONAL GOVERNMENT TO MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE
		From government to governance
		Multi-level governance
	FOREIGN POLICY
		End of foreign policy?
		How decisions are made
6 Society in a Global Age
	SOCIAL CONNECTEDNESS: THICK TO THIN?
		From industrialization to post-industrialism
		New technology and 'information society'
		Risk, uncertainty and insecurity
	GLOBALIZATION, CONSUMERISM AND THE INDIVIDUAL
		Social and cultural implications of globalization
		Consumerism goes global
		Rise of individualism
	GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY
		Explaining global civil society
		Transnational social movements and NGOs
		Globalization from below?
7 The Nation in a Global Age
	NATIONALISM AND WORLD POLITICS
		Making sense of nationalism
		A world of nation-states
		Nationalism, war and conflict
	NATIONS IN A GLOBAL WORLD
		A world on the move
		Transnational communities and diasporas
		Hybridity and multiculturalism
	NATIONALISM REVIVED
		National self-assertion in the post-Cold War period
		Rise of cultural and ethnic nationalism
		Anti-globalization nationalism
8 Identity, Culture and Challenges to the West
	RISE OF IDENTITY POLITICS
		Westernization as modernization
		Politics of collective identity
		Is cultural conflict inevitable?
	RELIGIOUS REVIVALISM
		Religion and politics
		The fundamentalist upsurge
	CHALLENGES TO THE WEST
		Postcolonialism
		Asian values
		Islam and the West
		Nature of political Islam
		The West and the 'Muslim question'
9 Power and Twenty-first Century World Order
	POWER AND GLOBAL POLITICS
		Power as capability
		Relational power and structural power
		Changing nature of power
	POST-COLD WAR GLOBAL ORDER
		End of Cold War bipolarity
		The 'new world order' and its fate
	US HEGEMONY AND GLOBAL ORDER
		Rise to hegemony
		The 'war on terror' and beyond
		Benevolent or malign hegemony?
	A MULTIPOLAR GLOBAL ORDER?
		Rise of multipolarity
		Multipolar order or disorder?
10 War and Peace
	NATURE OF WAR
		Types of war
		Why do wars occur?
		War as a continuation of politics
	CHANGING FACE OF WAR
		From 'old' wars to 'new' wars?
		'Postmodern' warfare
	JUSTIFYING WAR
		Realpolitik
		Just war theory
		Pacifism
11 Nuclear Proliferation and Disarmament
	NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION
		Nature of nuclear weapons
		Proliferation during the Cold War
		Proliferation in the post-Cold War era
	NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT
		Arms control and anti-proliferation strategies
		A world free of nuclear weapons?
12 Terrorism
	UNDERSTANDING TERRORISM
		Defining terrorism
		Rise of 'new' terrorism
	SIGNIFICANCE OF TERRORISM
		Terrorism goes global?
		Catastrophic terrorism?
	COUNTERING TERRORISM
		Strengthening sate security
		Military repression
		Political deals
13 Human Rights and Humanitarian Intervention
	HUMAN RIGHTS
		Defining human rights
		Protecting human rights
		Challenging human rights
	HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION
		Rise of humanitarian intervention
		Conditions for humanitarian intervention
		Does humanitarian intervention work?
14 International Law
	NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
		What is law?
		Sources of international law
		Why is international law obeyed?
	INTERNATIONAL LAW IN FLUX
		From international law to world law?
		Developments in the laws of war
		International tribunals and the International Criminal Court
15 Poverty and Development
	UNDERSTANDING POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT
		Defining and measuring poverty
		Development: competing visions
	A MORE UNEQUAL WORLD?
		Making sense of global inequality
		Contours of global inequality
		Globalization, poverty and inequality
		Does global inequality matter?
	DEVELOPMENT AND THE POLITICS OF AID
		Structural adjustment programmes and beyond
		International aid and the development ethic
		Debt relief and fair trade
16 Global Environmental Issues
	THE RISE OF GREEN POLITICS
		The environment as a global issue
		Green politics: reformism or radicalism?
	CLIMATE CHANGE
		Causes of climate change
		Consequences of climate change
		How should climate change be tackled?
		Why is international cooperation so difficult to achieve?
	RESOURCE SECURITY
		Resources, power and prosperity
17 Gender in Global Politics
	FEMINISM, GENDER AND GLOBAL POLITICS
		Varieties of feminism
		'Gender lenses' on global politics
	GENDERING GLOBAL POLITICS
		Gendered states and gendered nations
		Gendering security, war and armed conflict
		Gender, globalization and development
18 International Organization and the United Nations
	INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
		Rise of international organization
		Why are international organizations created
	THE UNITED NATIONS
		From the League to the UN
		Promoting peace and security
		Does UN peacekeeping work?
		Promoting economic and social development
		Future of the UN: challenges and reform
19 Global Governance and the Bretton Woods System
	GLOBAL GOVERNANCE?
		What global governance is, and is not
		Global governance: myth or reality?
	GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE: THE EVOLUTION OF THE BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM
		Making of the Bretton Woods system
		Fate of the Bretton Woods system
	EVALUATING GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE
		The International Monetary Fund
		The World Bank
		The World Trade Organization
	REFORMING THE BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM
		Global economic governance and the 2007–09 crisis
		Obstacles to reform
20 Regionalism and Global Politics
	REGIONS AND REGIONALISM
		Nature of regionalism
		Why regionalism?
		Regionalism and globalization
		Regional integration outside Europe
	EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
		What is the EU?
		The EU and the world
		The EU in crisis?
21 Global Futures
	IMAGES AND REALITY
	CONTENDING IMAGES OF THE GLOBAL FUTURE
		A borderless world?
		A world of democracies?
		Civilizations in conflict?
		A Chinese century?
		The growth of international community?
		The rise of the global South?
		The coming environmental catastrophe?
		Towards cosmopolitan democracy?
	AN UNKNOWABLE FUTURE?
Bibliography
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Global Politics

14039_89826_01_Pre.qxd 20/12/10 2:22 pm Page i

Page 292

Both sides quickly developed massive first-strike capability, but also acquired
second-strike capabilities that would enable them to withstand an enemy’s
attack and still destroy major strategic targets and population centres. By the
early 1960s, both superpowers had an invulnerable second-strike capability
which ensured that nuclear war would result in Mutually Assured Destruction
(MAD), thus completing what Jervis (1990) called the ‘nuclear revolution’. This
system of nuclear deterrence led to a ‘balance of terror’ that some have viewed as
the most powerful evidence of the capacity of the balance of power (see p. 268)
to maintain peace and security. Nuclear war, indeed, threatened such environ-
mental devastation that it created the possibility of the extinction of life itself,
not least through a nuclear winter.

Proliferation in the post-Cold War era

The end of the Cold War produced early, optimistic expectations that the issue
of nuclear proliferation would be of declining relevance. If East–West rivalry had
fuelled the nuclear arms race and created a balance of terror, its end surely
opened up the possibility that nuclear proliferation could also be ended, if not
reversed. Such expectations were fuelled by the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction
Treaty (START), and by START II in 1993, through which the USA and Russia
agreed, for the first time, to reduce the number of their nuclear warheads and to
eliminate certain categories of weapons, such as land-based intercontinental
ballistic missiles with multiple warheads. Such early optimism quickly faded,
however. The post-Cold War era, sometimes seen as the ‘second nuclear age’, has

N U C L E A R P R O L I F E R A T I O N A N D D I S A R M A M E N T 267

� First strike:: A pre-emptive
or surprise attack on an
adversary; ‘getting one’s
retaliation in first’.

� Second strike:: A retaliatory
attack on an adversary in
response to a first-strike attack.

� Nuclear winter: The theory
that the smoke and dust
created by nuclear explosions
would extinguish the sun’s rays
and dramatically lower
temperatures on the earth.

Figure 11.1 Accumulation of nuclear warheads by the USA and the Soviet Union,
1945–90
Source : Data from Norris and Kristensen (2010).

1945

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

0
1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990

USA

Soviet Union

14039_89826_12_Ch11.qxd 20/12/10 2:34 pm Page 267

Page 293

268 G L O B A L P O L I T I C S

THE BALANCE OF POWER

A P P R O A C H E S T O . . .

Realist view
The idea of the balance of power has played a central
role in realist theory. Waltz (1979), for example,
portrayed the balance of power as the theory of inter-
national politics This reflects core assumptions about
the importance of power in shaping state behaviour
and of the role of power relations in structuring
international politics. Realists view the balance of
power, understood as a rough equilibrium between
two or more power blocs, in strongly positive terms.
As only power can be a check on power, the balance
of power tends to lead to peace and stability.
However, realism embraces two quite different
conceptions of the balance of power. For classical
realists, the balance of power is essentially a policy, a
product of political intervention and statesmanship.
This example of voluntarism (implying faith in free
will and personal commitment) assumes that key
decision-makers in foreign policy enjoy great (though
not unlimited) freedom of manoeuvre. For neoreal-
ists, on the other hand, the balance of power is treated
more as a system, as a set of arrangements that tend
to arise automatically, rather than through the self-
willed actions of decision-makers. This example of
determinism (implying that human actions are
entirely conditioned by external factors) suggests that
the balance of power is essentially ‘imposed by events’
on statesman who are constrained by the dynamics of
the international system. This happens because states
in a self-help system are likely to act to prevent the
emergence of hegemonic domination by a single state.
A balance of power, nevertheless, is more likely to
develop in a bipolar system than it is in either a
multipolar or unipolar system (see Neorealist stability
theory, p. 63).

Liberal view
Liberals have generally been critical of the idea of
balance of power. In their view, the balance of power
legitimizes and entrenches power politics and interna-
tional rivalry, creating inherent instability and deep-
ening distrust. This is because the basic premise of the
balance of power is that other states, or coalitions of
states, pose a threat to security, and this can only be
contained through a rival build-up of power or the
formation of a rival alliance. A balance-of-power

mindset is therefore more likely to cause war than
prevent it. Much of liberal thinking about interna-
tional politics has therefore focused on finding alter-
native and more effective mechanisms for ensuring
peace and security. The principal liberal solution is
the construction of international organizations such
as the League of Nations or the United Nations, which
are capable of turning the jungle of international
politics into a zoo. This happens, in part, because
whereas the balance of power fosters private agree-
ments amongst states, international organizations
foster public agreements that cover most if not all
states, so making possible a system of collective secu-
rity (see p. 440).

Critical views
A variety of critical approaches to the balance of
power have emerged. Social constructivists, for
instance, have emphasized the extent to which any
assessment of the balance of power is dependent on
perception, ideas and beliefs. Any assessment of the
balance of power is therefore shaped by the identities
that states have of themselves and of other states. In
short, paraphrasing Wendt’s (1999) oft-quoted asser-
tion about anarchy, the balance of power is what
states make of it. International society theorists have,
similarly, argued that the balance of power is an arte-
fact: it emerges out of the existence of common
norms and values and a mutual desire of states to
avoid war. The balance of power, then, works because
states want it to work (Bull [1977] 2002). Feminist
theorists have shared with liberals the belief that
balance-of-power thinking tends to intensify interna-
tional conflict and make war more likely, not less
likely. For feminists, this reflects a gendered concep-
tion of the balance of power, in which power is
almost always conceived as ‘power over’, the ability to
control or dominate others. The balance of power
therefore invariably becomes a struggle for power.
Finally, postcolonial theorists have viewed the balance
of power as an essentially European, or western,
game, which excludes consideration of the rest of the
world. The European balance-of-power system in the
late nineteenth century thus coincided with the
‘scramble for Africa’, and a deepening of global
inequalities and imbalances.

14039_89826_12_Ch11.qxd 20/12/10 2:34 pm Page 268

Page 584

Turkey 203, 504
Twain, M. 392
Twenty Years’ Crisis 1919–1939 (Carr)

34, 57
‘twilight of state’ 114
Tyndall, J. 397
‘tyranny of majority’ 307

Uganda 349
uncertainty 141–4, 156
underclass 138
underdevelopment 359, 518
Understanding Media (McLuhan, 1964)

383
unemployment 34, 103
uneven development 68
unilateralism 222
unipolarity 219, 222
United Kingdom 84, 159, 481, 500,

501, 503, 512, 515
counter-terrorism 296–7
devolution 127
free trade 474

United Nations 439, 442, 449; 2, 5, 8,
65, 70, 112, 114, 117, 220, 432,
435–53

banishing ‘scourge of war’ 440–3
Cold War era 440–1
‘delivering as one’ 451
‘dysfunctional family’ 451
finance 451
future (challenges and reform)

448–51
and Iraq 443
key events 447
Korean War 38, 48
membership growth (1945–2006)

37f
‘misnamed’ 158, 442
‘obsolete’ (debated) 452
peacekeeping/peace-building

444–5, 445–6, 451
post-Cold War 441–3
promoting peace and security

440–5
UN Charter (1945) 309, 326, 339,

342, 343, 344, 435, 438, 440,
444, 447t, 458

UN Climate Change Conference
(Copenhagen, 2009) 386, 402,
403, 406, 519

UN Commission on Human Rights
451

UN Conference on Human
Environment (UNCHE,
Stockholm, 1972) 385

UN Day (24 October) 438
UN Decade for Women (1976–85)

417
UN Economic and Social Council

(ECOSOC) 439, 449, 446, 470
UN Environment Programme

(UNEP) 385, 396
UN Framework Convention on

Climate Change (FCCC, 1992)
153, 386, 395, 400

UN General Assembly 342, 438–9,
439, 449

Emergency Special Session 327
Resolution 2131 (1965) 343

UN High Commissioner for Human
Rights 309

UN Human Rights Council (2006–)
309, 451

UN Peacebuilding Commission
(2005–) 445–6, 451

UN Prize in Field of Human Rights
313

UN Secretariat 439, 449
UN Security Council 266, 271,

279, 312, 315, 326–7, 333, 342,
344, 346, 348, 349, 438, 439,

449, 452, 458
reform 450
successes 440
veto power 440–1, 450

UN Special Commissions
(UNSCOM) 275

UNCED (‘Rio Earth Summit’, 1992)
152, 153, 154, 386, 396, 400,
406

UNDP (1965–) 446–8
UNESCO 439
UNICEF 439
UNTAET 323
see also IMF; World Bank; WTO

United States 5, 18, 29, 38, 46, 59,
84–5, 96, 99, 131, 400, 405, 407,
408, 456–7, 475, 488, 491, 511,
512, 513, 519

economic preponderance 50, 51
economic resilience 227
export market 495
federalism 481
free trade 474
‘global hegemon’ (debated) 227
hegemony 220–8, 448, 514–15
isolationism 7
‘leading terrorist state’ 287
relationship with China 109
relative economic decline 466
versus ‘the Rest’ 237

rise to hegemony 220–2
sole superpower 516
US Constitution 481
US Declaration of Independence

(1776) 304, 305
US dollar 461, 464, 467
US Senate 471
see also Americanization

‘United States of Europe’ 494, 496
Universal Declaration of Human

Rights (1948) 303, 305, 308t,
309, 310, 314, 325, 335

rejected by Saudi Arabia 318
Universal Negro Improvement

Association (UNIA, 1914–) 185
universalism 185, 305, 316, 318
universality 79, 80
urbanization 137
utilitarianism 129, 148, 389
utopianism 62
Uzbekistan 491

Van Rompuy, H. 499
Vasak, K. 305
Venezuela 410
Venus 397
victors’ justice 335
Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic

and Consular Relations (1961,
1963) 336

Vietnam War 58
Vietnam-Cambodia war (1978–9)

176
Vincent, J. 312
violence 155
‘virtual war’ 251
‘virtuous war’ 509
Vlaams Blok 179
Volksgeist (Herder) 160
voluntarism 72

Wahhabism 199, 201
Wall Street Crash (1929) 103
Wallerstein, I. 87, 98, 100, 367
Walt, S. 235
Waltz, K. 58, 60, 129, 241, 268
Walzer, M. 258
war/s 56, 58, 129, 165–6, 241, 422–6,

431, 515
of aggression 344
causes 241–3
changing face 245–54
continuation of politics 243–5
‘endless’ 246
gendered conception 422
justifications 254–61

I N D E X 559

14039_89826_24_Index.qxd 20/12/10 2:43 pm Page 559

Page 585

war/s – continued
‘more barbaric and horrific’ 251
nature 240–5
‘obsolescence’ 246
‘privatization’ 250
types 240–1
unwinnable 246
won by state that started them 243

war crimes 345, 346, 347, 493
war and peace 244; 7, 239–62
war rape 424, 425, 426
‘war on terror’ 223, 297; 20, 45–50,

52, 58, 222–6, 315, 514
humanitarian intervention 321–4

Ward, B. 385
warlordism 121
Warsaw Pact 38, 43, 45
Washington Consensus 50, 89, 90, 92,

96, 370, 463, 464, 466, 467, 470,
475, 476

‘weak’ liberals 63
‘weak sustainability’ 390
‘weakness of strong’ 299
weapons of mass destruction (WMD)

7, 143, 252, 264
‘weapons of weak’ 284
Weber, M. 112, 120–1, 123
Wegener, A. 508
Weiss, T. G. 330, 453
welfare dilemma 460, 461
welfare state 119, 418
Weltpolitik (world policy) 30
Wen Jiabao 403
Wendt, A. 72–3, 74, 115, 184, 268
West, the 26, 40, 47, 513

challenges 194–206
rise 27–8

West African Economic and Monetary
Union 492

West Germany 512
Westernization 147, 182–3, 208
Westphalian state-system 6, 420

see also Peace of Westphalia
Wheeler, N. 330
‘where you stand depends on where

you sit’ 132

Whitman, J. 479
whole societies 307
wholesale terrorism 287
Wight, M. 517
Wikipedia 142
‘will of international community’

516
Williams, M. 110
Williamson, J. 92
Willis, K. 382
Wilson, W. 59, 64, 163–4, 219, 438
Wilsonianism 206, 226
‘wish to survive’ (Waltz) 115
Wollman, P. 180
women 98, 311, 358, 371, 393, 417,

427, 429
‘idealized’ 420
‘male-identification’ versus ‘female-

identification’ 416
‘peacemakers’ 425
‘reserve army of labour’ 426
trafficked 426, 428

women’s movement 152, 154, 415
women’s rights 196
Woods, N. 479
‘working peace system’ (Mitrany) 487
works councils 86
World Bank (1946–) 50, 70, 90, 117,

220, 354, 373, 417, 439, 460, 468,
470, 511

SAPs 369–72
World Conference on Human Rights

(Vienna, 1993) 318
‘world of democracies’ 512–13
World Development Report (World

Bank) 362, 373
World Economic Forum 155
world government 31, 55, 80, 457,

457–8, 520
World Health Organization 439
World Hindu Council 192
‘world’ law 331, 339–44, 351
World Meteorological Organization

(WMO) 396
world order 209–37, 216
‘world of regions’ 480

World Social Forum (2001–) 152,
358

‘world society’ 137
world trade 50–1
World Trade Organization (WTO,

1995–) 472, 511; 9, 50, 67, 70,
118, 338, 343, 366, 439, 460,
470–3, 488, 489, 501, 510, 518

Chinese membership (2001–) 473
critics 473, 511
Dispute Settlement Body 471–2,

511
Doha Round 380, 473, 494, 511
‘one country, one vote’ 472

World War I 29–32, 52, 68, 201, 424,
515

World War II 32–6, 52, 166, 424, 515
World War III (averted) 440
World Wide Web 141
world-systems theory 68, 98, 367, 518

see also neo-Marxism
world’s police officer 221

xenophobia 166
Xinjiang 176, 315, 409

‘Year of Africa’ (2005) 380
Young, A., 238
Young, J. W. 52
Young, R. 208
Yugoslavia 45, 165, 166, 167, 178,

187, 188, 219, 249, 342, 351, 425,
512

Yuval-Davis, N. 420

Zangl, B. 453, 460n, 461
Zapatista movement 358, 361
Zenica Centre 424
Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai) 25
Zimbabwe 322, 329, 378
Zionism 192
Zoellick, R. B. 373
zone of danger and chaos 223
zone of peace 19, 64, 66, 246, 247
zone of safety 223
zone of turmoil 64, 66, 247, 319

560 I N D E X

14039_89826_24_Index.qxd 20/12/10 2:43 pm Page 560

Similer Documents