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TitleCannabis
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Total Pages265
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Cannabis
Imprint Page
Contents
Preface
One: What is Cannabis?
Two: Ancient Cannabis
Three: Hemp Travels The World
Four: The Drug Goes Global
Five: Things To Make With And For Cannabis
Six: Symbolism Starring Cannabis
Seven: How Do You Know Cannabis?
Timeline
References
Further Reading
Associations And Websites
Acknowledgements
Photo Acknowledgements
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

cannabis

Page 132

Marijuana dry pipes came initially from southeastern Africa, and
were dispersed initially by sailors on Portuguese ships. Most European
languages use words recognizably similar to English pipe. In contrast,
‘smoking pipe’ in Portuguese is cachimbo, which was borrowed from
an African language,73 most likely KiNyasa, now spoken in southern
Malawi and neighbouring areas. KiNyasa includes terms for calabash-
and bamboo-based water pipes, two dry pipes and various expedients
(including ‘earth pipes’ formed in soil). KiNyasa kachimbo means ‘ordin -
ary [smoking] pipe’.74 Portuguese sailors first encountered KiNyasa
during a treasure hunt along the Zambezi River in 1514.75 Before
tobacco arrived later in the 1500s, African pipes contained marijuana
and other plants. However, sixteenth-century European smoking
practices in southeastern Africa are unknown. The Portuguese ‘who
were in closest contact with Africans and [best knew African] lan-
guages were themselves illiterate or poorly educated, and [thus their]

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Things to Make With and For Cannabis

Man with Persian-style water pipe and tea, probably Egypt, c. 1917.

Page 133

knowledge . . . contributed little’ to the written record.76 The earliest
global diffusion of pipe-smoking was led by ‘the “lower orders” of
society – slaves and seamen – [rather than] those who knew the art
of writing’.77

The loanword travelled widely. Cachimbo appeared in a Spanish-
language book of 1642 about a banquet in the Portuguese court, which
included ‘cachimbo-tobacco addicts, or . . . tobacco-cachimbo addicts’.78

Around 1700, Portuguese ethnobotanical treatises recommended
cachimbo-smoking to administer several plant medicines, and a 1718
Dutch–Portuguese dictionary defined cachimbo as ‘A tobacco pipe, or
[any smoking] pipe, because [the Portuguese] smoke some herbs’.79

Nicotiana tobacco became the preferred smokable worldwide, but early
European pipes often carried herbal mixtures.80 From Portuguese,
cachimbo entered French, Basque and Occitan, in which cachimbau was
a sailor’s pipe.81 In Spanish cachimba has been considered an American
dialectal word, but it is actually an Atlantic word. In western Africa,
‘cachimbo’ was spoken in Portuguese Creole, but regional African lan-
guages have terms for ‘smoking pipe’ that are unrelated to cachimbo.82

In areas of initial Portuguese and Spanish contact in the Americas,
smoking pipes were rare, if present, before 1500.83 Additionally, the
Portuguese had used pipa to mean ‘barrel for storing liquid’ since

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cannabis

Sailor with cachimbo-style dry pipe, Portugal, 1904.

Page 264

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, Le chanvre 20
running amuck, idiom 158–9
rush (Juncus species) 49, 53
Russia 38, 68, 70, 85, 126, 141
Russian hemp, international commerce

in 62, 66, 68–70, 72, 78–81, 83,
85–6, 125

St Helena 102
Sahel region 108, 109
São Tome 107
sativa (folk species) 23–5, 47, 89
sativa (genetic species), definition

20–22, 28–30
Scythia 51–2, 56
Senegal 109
Serbia 65, 65, 125
sex 104, 114, 153, 158
shamanism 35
Shiva, Hindu deity 45, 46, 171, 172
shives 123
ship’s riggings 70, 84–5, 84
Siberia 29, 31, 35, 40, 49, 51
Sierra Leone 96, 102–4, 153
Silvestre de Sacy, Antoine 153, 159
sisal (Agave rigida) 18, 67, 83
smoking pipes

African water pipes 95, 95, 100,
127–130, 129, 130
bong 128–9, 133
cachimbo as racial stereotype 162
‘cachimbo’, etymology 131–2
dry pipes 130–34, 130, 132, 135
earth pipes 131, 186
Eurasian smoke inhalation devices
46, 51, 128
hookah as Orientalist motif 131, 149,
150, 154
improvised water pipes 97, 130
invention in sub-Saharan Africa 46,
94–5, 127
Native American tobaccopipes i
on slave ships 99
Persian water pipe (or hookah)
128–9, 131
possible invention in Southeast Asia
128

soma/haoma 43
South Africa

anti-drug policies 115, 164
colonial psychiatry in 158
drug production 142–4
drug use in 95, 96, 96, 103–4, 193
hemp in 75, 181
slaves and other labourers in
101–2

South Carolina 109
South Sudan 93
Southeast Asia, region 37, 38, 47, 97,

105–6, 127–9, 142, 158
Soviet Union 85, 86, 88
Spain

drug use in 114–15, 134
hemp in Spanish colonies 66–8, 68,
75
hemp production 54, 65–6
low importance of hemp 65
reliance on imported hemp 56, 65,
70

spinning 52, 76, 76
Sri Lanka 95, 148, 163
Stanley, Henry Morton 156
string 124
Surgeon General, u.s. 158
Swaziland 143
Sweden 49, 69
Switzerland 53

Taoism 35, 146
Tarim Basin 34–6, 42–3, 139
Tasmania 185
taxonomy 10–12, 19–21, 25–6, 154,

183–4
Tennessee 80
Texas 109, 141
textiles

canvas 53–4, 124
denim 124
linen 73, 74, 124
‘Negro cloth’ 190
ramie 32, 37, 85
sackcloth 67, 74, 85, 79, 85, 165–6,
189–90
sailcloth 32, 53–4, 65–6, 79

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Index

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silks 37, 52, 85
woollens 52–3, 78, 124, 189

thc
botany 27–8, 46
chemistry 12, 21, 41, 181
pharmacology 46, 89, 127
quantities in Cannabis products 110,
144, 176

Thrace 50–53
Tibet 38, 41, 43
Tien Shan mountains 29
tincture 127, 138
tobacco

meaning marijuana 99–101, 186
meaning Nicotiana species 72, 81, 95,
99, 131, 159–60

Togo 103, 107
Trinidad 102
Tunisia 103, 139
Turkey 53, 62, 88
Turkmenistan 41, 42, 86, 125
twine 30, 53, 79, 81–83, 124,

166, 166

Ukraine 49
United Kingdom

anti-drug policies 115, 164
arrival of drug Cannabis 148–9
death by hanging 147–8
domestic hemp production 65, 71,
74–5
hemp in prisons and poorhouses 164,
165
inducements for hemp production
71–2
place names 70
reliance on imported hemp 56, 69–72
Roman Britannia 53
trade policies 71–3

United States
arrival of Cannabis 67–8, 107–8
bong in 128–9
Cannabis eradication efforts 31, 110,
111, 118
death by hanging 147
Declaration of Independence
124

domestic drug production 109,
116–18, 141–2
domestic hemp production 72–5,
78–83, 83, 86–88, 122–3, 141, 163, 182
drug commerce in 118, 138, 140–42,
169–70, 175
drug control policies 26, 140–41,
141, 158–9, 164, 166–8, 168, 176, 183
Drug Enforcement Administration
111, 134, 168, 176
drug use in 118, 127, 138, 143, 171,
173–5, 185
first u.s. flag 189
Food and Drug Administration 181,
188
hemp in prisons 165–6, 166, 192
place names 70–71
slavery in 101, 164–5
u.s. Army 74, 104, 109, 114–16, 158,
169–70
use of term marihuana 155
War on Drugs in 169–71, 175

Uruguay 133, 169

Venice 54, 57, 61–5, 62
Victoria, queen of Great Britain 185–6,

187
Vietnam conflict 115
Virginia 72, 109, 165

War on Drugs 111, 116, 169–70, 175
Washington, u.s. state 118, 140
Washington, George 79, 182, 185, 185
waste fibre 37, 76, 123
weaver’s broom (Spartium junceum) 49
weaving 32, 37, 73, 178
weediness of Cannabis 31, 41, 73, 78, 100,

110–11, 114, 164, 193
West Africa, region 103, 162
wild dagga (Leonotis leonurus) 95, 104
Wisconsin 83, 88, 166, 188
women 76

Yemen 128
Yugoslavia 88

Zoroastrianism 43–5

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