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Page 2

Dictionary Industrial Automation and Control

Olle Bodestedt

Industrial Automation and Control


Page 228

Dictionary Industrial Automation and Control

knitting 227 Kynar

knitting (textile term) A method of constructing fa­
bric by interlocking series of loops of one or more
yarns. The two major classes are weft knitting and
warp knitting. In weft knitting, one continuous yarn
runs crosswise in the fabric, forming all the loops in
one course; in warp knitting, the yarns generally run
lengthwise in the fabric.

knockout A removable portion in the side of a box or
cabinet. During installation it can be readily taken out
with a hammer, screwdriver or pliers so the raceway,
cables or fittings can be attached.

knotter pulp Pulp prepared by refining the screen re­
ject from the screening of chemical pulp, often mixed
with fiber material recovered from the white water.

knowledge (in artifical intelligence) A collection
of facts, events and beliefs, organized for systematic

knowledge base The part of an artificial intelligence
system that contains structured, codified knowledge
and hueristics used to solve problems.

knowledge-based system, KBS An information
processing system that provides for solving problems
in a particular domain or application area by drawing
inferences from a knowledge base. Notes: 1. The term
knowledge-based system is sometimes used syno­
nymously with expert system, which is usually res­
tricted to expert knowledge. 2. Some knowledge-ba­
sed systems have learning capabilities.

knowledge engineer A person who implements an
expert system.

knowledge engineering The discipline concerned
with acquiring knowledge from domain experts and
other knowledge sources and incorporating it into a
knowledge base. Knowledge engineering sometimes
refers particularly to the art of designing, building,
and maintaining expert systems and other knowledge-
based systems.

knowledge representation A structure in which
knowledge can be stored in a way that allows the sys­
tem to understand the relationships among pieces of
knowledge and to manipulate those relationships.

knowledge tree A hierarchical semantic network
such as a tree-like directed graph.

Knudsen flow Gas flow in a long tube at pressures
such that the mean free path of a gas molecule is sig­
nificantly greater than the tube radius.

kohm Kiloohm.
kollergang See edge runner.
kolovolt ampere rating (voltage regulator) The
product of the rated load amperes and the rated range
of regulation in kilovolts. Note: The kilovolt-ampere
rating of a three-phase voltage regulator is the product
of the rated load amperes and the rated range of regu­
lation in kilovolts multiplied by 1.732.

koniscope An indicating instrument for detecting
dust in the air.

Koppers vacuum carbonate process (coke-
oven plants) A process for hydrogen sulphide remo­
val from coke-oven gas and recovers it in the form of
a concentrated acid gas stream from which the hydro­
gen sulphide can readily be converted to either ele­
mental sulphur or sulphuric acid.

kort nozzle A type of ship’s propeller that rotates wit­
hin a cylindrical cowling that concentrates the thrust
of the propeller. This produces a nozzle effect as the
water is jetted from the cowling. Kort nozzles are in-
stalled on some tugboats and drilling – tender vessels
because of their maneuverability and response.

Kovar An iron-nickel-cobalt alloy with a coefficient of
expansion similar to that of glass and silicon and ther­
mal characteristics similar to those of alumina.

kPa Kilopascal.
Kr Chemical symbol for krypton.
kraft faced liner, test liner A liner with an outer ply
of kraft pulp, the remainder of which is manufactured
from some other material, e.g. waste paper.

kraft liner A facing manufactured almost entirely of
kraft pulp.

kraft paper Paper manufactured almost entirely of
kraft pulp. The term “kraft paper” is sometimes used
to describe paper manufactured primarily of un­
bleached softwood sulphate pulp.

kraft pulp Sulphate pulp for kraft paper and other
products with high strength. In a strict technical sense,
the term “kraft pulp”, is more limited than the term
“sulphate pulp” and in some countries this difference
is observed even in a commercial context. In many
countries, however, the terms are considered to be sy­
nonymous. The term “kraft pulp” is then preferred to
avoid the risk that the term sulphate pulp be confused
with the term sulphite pulp.

kraft sack paper Kraft paper for paper sacks.
KR process The KR process produces hot metal di­
rectly from untreated raw coal and without the blast
furnace requirement of coke. The process comprises a
two-stage operation in which DRI (direct-reduced
iron) from a shaft furnace is charged without cooling
into a connected melter gasifier. Partial combustion of
coal with oxygen in the fluidized bed of the melter ga­
sifier produces reducing gas for the shaft furnace.

Krupp-CODIR process The Krupp-CODIR process
of Krupp Industries, West Germany stems from the
original Krupp-Renn process. The process operates at
a lower temperature than the Krupp-Renn thus produ­
cing a standard DRI (direct reduced iron) product.
Furthermore, limestone or dolomite in the furnace
charge absorbs a substantial part of the sulphur intro­
duced with fuel.

Krupp-Renn process A direct reduction process. In
this process, a mixture of ore and fine-grained carbo­
naceous reducing agent (e.g., coke breeze or bitumin­
ous-coal fines) is fed continuously into a rotary kiln.
The reduced iron welds into nodules called “luppen”
which become embedded in the pasty slag.

KSR See keyboard send/receive.
kurtosis The degree of curvature of the peak of a pro­
bability curve.

kV Kilovolt.
kVA Kilovoltampere.
kvar Kilovar.
kW Kilowatt.
kWh Kilowatthour.
Kynar Tradename of Polyvinylidene fluoride, by
Pennwalt Corp.

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Dictionary Industrial Automation and Control


L Symbol for coil, lambert, inductance or part of bat­
tery coding system according to IEC.

La Chemical symbol for lanthanum.
labeled In US, equipment or materials to which has
been attached a label, symbol, or other identifying
mark of an organization acceptable to the authority
having jurisdiction and concerned with product evalu­
ation, that maintains periodic inspection of production
of labeled equipment or materials and by those labe­
ling the manufacturer indicates compliance with
appropriate standards or performance in a specified

label, flag A group of characters used as a symbol to
identify an item of data, an area of memory, a record
or a file.

label group A collection of continuous label sets of
the same label type.

laboratory fiberizer, defibrator A laboratory
machine for the defibration of previously undefibrated

laboratory instrument computer, LINC Performs
several of the functions that normally external devices
or people are required to perform. Data recording,
analog-digital conversion, experiment monitoring,
control, and analysis are built in capabilities of the
computer. LINC gives direct assistance to the research
worker in many ways.

laboratory noise testing (of control valves) (ty­
pe testing) Laboratory testing for the purpose of de­
termining sound pressure levels shall follow the pro­
cedures given in IEC publication 534-8-1 for gases
and IEC publication 534-8-2 for liquids. These tests
provide the basis necessary for the prediction of noise
levels under installed conditions. ANSI/ISA publica­
tion S 75.07 Laboratory measurement of aerodynamic
noise generated by control valves also refers.

laboratory reference standards Standards that
are used to assign and check the values of laboratory
secondary standards.

laboratory secondary standards Standards that
are used in the routine calibration tasks of the labora­

laboratory test A compliance test or a determination
test made under prescribed and controlled conditions
which may or may not simulate field conditions.

labor grade A classification of labor into separate
groupings of those whose capability makes them uni­
que in terms of their particular skill level or craft.

lactometer A hydrometer designed for measuring the
specific gravity of milk.

ladder diagram (LD) language A programming
language using ladder diagrams for representing the
application program for a programmable controller
system (PC-system).

(relay) ladder diagram One or more networks of
contacts, coils, graphically represented functions,
functions, function blocks, data elements, labels and
connective elements, delimited on the left and (optio­
nally) on the right by power rails.

ladle (in steelmaking) Liquid steel is always tapped
from a primary furnace into a tapping ladle. From the-
re it may be poured into molds, other ladles, vessels or
special furnaces, or it may undergo treatments in the
tapping ladle itself.

ladle-injection process (in steelmaking) A se­
condary steelmaking process for injecting powdered

metals or slags into a ladle of steel to attain rapid and
efficient desulphurization of steel in the ladle.

ladle metallurgy (in steelmaking) Ladle metallur­
gy is a secondary step of the steelmaking process of-
ten performed in a ladle after the initial refining pro­
cess in a primary is completed. Also referred to as
secondary steelmaking. The purpose of secondary ste­
elmaking is to produce “clean” steel, steel which sa­
tisfies stringent requirements of surface, internal and
microcleanliness quality and of mechanical proper-

ladle refining furnace (in steelmaking) A ladle
refining furnace has the ability to reheat the liquid ste­
el. This allows the steelmakers to add greater amounts
of alloys to the liquid steel. Heat is supplied to the
process through electrodes, a process called arc rehea­

lag 1. A relative measure of the time delay between
two events, states, or mechanisms. 2. In control theo­
ry, a transfer function term in the form, 1/(Ts+1).
3. Lag in a communications system is the time lapse
between the operation of the transmitting device and
the response of the receiving device.

lagging 1. In an ac circuit, a condition where peak
current occurs at a later time in each cycle that does
peak voltage. 2. A thermal insulation, usually made of
asbestos and magnesia plaster, that is used to prevent
heat transfer through the walls of process equipment,
pressure vessels or piping systems.

lagging extension A lagging extension is that por­
tion of a thermowell or thermometer well above the
threads, intended to extend through the lagging of a

lagging load A predominantly inductive load, i.e.,
one in which the current lags the voltage.

lag-lead (lead-lag) A circuit the response of which
includes lag components and their derivatives.

lag module A device or algorithm which applies a
first-order capacitive lag to a signal, thereby both at­
tenuating the signal and shifting its phase to a maxi-
mum of –90°, as a function of signal frequency.

lambda Greek letter, used to designate wavelength
measured in meters.

lambert A unit of luminance; it equals the uniform lu­
minance of a perfectly diffusing surface emitting or
reflecting light at one lumen per square centimeter.

Lambert’s cosine law, cosine emission law
(optical communication) The statement that the
radiance of certain idealised surfaces, is independent
of the angle from which the surface is viewed.

lambertian emitter An optical light source where
the transmitted radiation is distributed uniformly in all

laminar boundary layer A layer of a moving turbu­
lent stream adjacent to the wall of a pipe or other con­
duit, where the motion approximates streamline flow.

laminar flow 1. Flow under conditions where forces
due to viscosity are significant in comparsion to the
forces due to inertia. Note: Laminar flow may be uns­
teady but is completely free from turbulent mixing.
Poiseuille flow is an example of steady laminar flow
in a circular pipe. 2. Flow state characterized by paral­
lel or laminar movement of particles.

lamination, laminating Joining together of two or
more layers of material to a multiply product; see li­

Page 455

Dictionary Industrial Automation and Control


NFPA No 70-1978. National Electrical Code.
IEC Standard 801-4. First edition 1988. Electromagnetic Compatibility for Indu­

strial Process Measurement and Control Equipment. Part 4: Electrical fast trans­
ient/burst requirements.

Glossary of Terms Used in the Measurement of Fluid Flow. ANSI/ASME MFC-

A Simplified Technique of Control System Engineering. G. K. Tucker and D. M.
Wills. Published by Minneapolis – Honeywell Regulator Co. 1958, 1960, 1962.

ISO 5752 Metal valves for use in flanged pipe systems – Face-to-face and centre-
to-face dimensions. Second edition 1982-06-01.

NACE Standard MR-01-75 (1980 Revision). National Association of Corrosion
Engineers, Houston, Texas (USA).

ISO 5167 Measurement of fluid flow by means of orifice plates, nozzles and ventu­
ri tubes inserted in circular cross-section conduits running full. First edition
1980-02-01, corrected and reprinted 1980-07-15.

IEC Standard Publication 1131–2 Programmable Controllers. Part 2: Equipment
requirements and tests. First edition.

British Standard Glossary of Terms used in metrology (incorporating BS 2643).
BS5233:1986 British Standard Institution.

Anonymous. Simulation Terminology, Working Paper X3.6.6/3, Subcommittee
X3K6. New York, New York: American National Standards Institute (October

ISO International Standard 8402 Quality – Vocabulary. First edition 1986-06-15.
Fundamentals of Industrial Instrumentation, Honeywell Process Control Division,

1100 Virginia Drive, Fort Washington, PA 19034, USA.
Management of Industrial Maintenance by A. Kelly and M. J. Harris. Butterworth

& Co. (Publishers) Ltd. London: 88 Kingsway, WC2B6AB. Reprinted 1979.
Sellers, H. L. Process Computer Control Software. Study Report. San Marcos, Tex­

as: Southwest Texas State University (June 1982).
Proposal of German IEC National Committee for industrial process measurement

and control equipment. Photoelectric and proximity switches. Part 1: Defini­

IEC Standard 654-2, First edition 1979. Operating conditions for industrial-process
measurement and control equipment. Part 2: Power.

Harrison, H. L. and J. G. Bollinger, Introduction to Automatic Control. Scranton,
Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company (July 1970).

The International Guide to the SI units published by XETEX CO, Stockholm, Swe­

IEC publication 534-2-3. Industrial process control valves. Part 2: Flow capacity,
Section Three – Test procedures. First edition 1983.

IEC publication 534-4. Industrial process control valves. Part 4: Inspection and
routine testing. Amendment No 1, August 1986.

ANSI MC85. IM-1981. Terminology for Automatic Control. Withdrawn.
IEC standard 654-1. First edition, 1979. Operating condition for industrial process

measurement and control equipment. Part 1: Temperature, humidity and baro­
metric pressure.

Page 456

Dictionary Industrial Automation and Control


IEC standard 654-4. First edition, 1987. Operating condition for industrial-process
measurement and control equipment. Part 4: Corrosive and erosive influences.

ISO International Standard 2382/18–21 Information Processing Systems – Vocabu­

IEC standard 654-1. First edition, 1976, Industrial process control valves. Part 1:
General considerations.

IEC standard 364-1. Electrical installations of building Part 1: Scope, object and

ISA Handbook of Control Valves. Second edition. ISBN 0-87664-234-2.
IEC standard 381-2. First edition 1978. Analogue signals, process control systems.

Part 2: Direct voltage signals.
Electrical Instruments in Hazardous Locations. Third Edition. Ernest C. Magison,

Honeywell Inc., Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, USA. Publisher Instrument So­
ciety of America. ISBN 87664-376-4.

Clason, W. E. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Computers, Automatic Control of Data Pro­
cessing. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Publishing Company (1971).

Meetham, A. R. Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Information and Control, London,
England: Pergamon Press (1969).

IEC standard 381-1. Second edition 1982. Analogue signals for process control
systems. Part 1: Direct current signals.

Guide to the measurement of thermal radiation by means of the thermopile radio-
meter. BS 489: January 1973. Withdrawn.

IEC Multilingual dictionary of electricity. First edition 1983.
ISO International standard 6107-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Water quality – Vocabulary.
Engineering Manual of Automatic Control (77–1200). Honeywell Inc., 1989.
TD-18-100 Honeywell TDC 3000 Basic System Glossary and Glossary in Honey-

well Automation College Technical Training Catalog (1991–1992). Jordain,
P. B. Condensed Computer Encyclopedia. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Company (1969).

Various papers written on industrial control subjects within Honeywell.

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