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Table of Contents
List of Tables
1 Energy and the Environment
	1.1 Introduction
		1.1.1 An Overview of This Text
	1.2 Energy
		1.2.1 Electric Power
		1.2.2 Transportation Energy
		1.2.3 Energy as a Commodity
	1.3 The Environment
		1.3.1 Managing Industrial Pollution
2 Global Energy Use and Supply
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Global Energy Consumption
	2.3 Global Energy Sources
	2.4 Global Electricity Consumption
	2.5 Global Carbon Emissions
	2.6 End-Use Energy Consumption in the United States
		2.6.1 Industrial Sector
		2.6.2 Residential Sector
		2.6.3 Commercial Sector
		2.6.4 Transportation Sector
	2.7 Global Energy Supply
		2.7.1 Coal Reserves
		2.7.2 Petroleum Reserves
		2.7.3 Unconventional Petroleum Resources
		2.7.4 Natural Gas Reserves
		2.7.5 Unconventional Gas Resources
		2.7.6 Summary of Fossil Reserves
	2.8 Conclusion
3 Thermodynamic Principles of Energy Conversion
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 The Forms of Energy
		3.2.1 The Mechanical Energy of Macroscopic Bodies
		3.2.2 The Energy of Atoms and Molecules
		3.2.3 Chemical and Nuclear Energy
		3.2.4 Electric and Magnetic Energy
		3.2.5 Total Energy
	3.3 Work and Heat Interactions
		3.3.1 Work Interaction
		3.3.2 Heat Interaction
	3.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
	3.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
	3.6 Thermodynamic Properties
	3.7 Steady Flow
	3.8 Heat Transfer and Heat Exchange
	3.9 Combustion of Fossil Fuel
		3.9.1 Fuel Heating Value
	3.10 Ideal Heat Engine Cycles
		3.10.1 The Carnot Cycle
		3.10.2 The Rankine Cycle
		3.10.3 The Otto Cycle
		3.10.4 The Brayton Cycle
		3.10.5 Combined Brayton and Rankine Cycles
	3.11 The Vapor Compression Cycle: Refrigeration and Heat Pumps
	3.12 Fuel Cells
	3.13 Fuel (Thermal) Efficiency
	3.14 Synthetic Fuels
		3.14.1 The Hydrogen Economy
	3.15 Conclusion
4 Electrical Energy Generation, Transmission, and Storage
	4.1 Introduction
	4.2 Electromechanical Power Transformation
	4.3 Electric Power Transmission
		4.3.1 AC/DC Conversion
	4.4 Energy Storage
		4.4.1 Electrostatic Energy Storage
		4.4.2 Magnetic Energy Storage
		4.4.3 Electrochemical Energy Storage
		4.4.4 Mechanical Energy Storage
		4.4.5 Properties of Energy Storage Systems
	4.5 Conclusion
5 Fossil-Fueled Power Plants
	5.1 Introduction
	5.2 Fossil-Fueled Power Plant Components
		5.2.1 Fuel Storage and Preparation
		5.2.2 Burner
		5.2.3 Boiler
		5.2.4 Steam Turbine
		5.2.5 Gas Turbine
		5.2.6 Condenser
		5.2.7 Cooling Tower
		5.2.8 Generator
		5.2.9 Emission Control
		5.2.10 Waste Disposal
	5.3 Advanced Cycles
		5.3.1 Combined Cycle
		5.3.2 Coal Gasification Combined Cycle
		5.3.3 Cogeneration
		5.3.4 Fuel Cell
	5.4 Conclusion
6 Nuclear-Fueled Power Plants
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Nuclear Energy
	6.3 Radioactivity
		6.3.1 Decay Rates and Half-Lives
		6.3.2 Units and Dosage
	6.4 Nuclear Reactors
		6.4.1 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)
		6.4.2 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
		6.4.3 Gas-Cooled Reactor (GCR)
		6.4.4 Breeder Reactor (BR)
	6.5 Nuclear Fuel Cycle
		6.5.1 Mining and Refining
		6.5.2 Gasification and Enrichment
		6.5.3 Spent Fuel Reprocessing and Temporary Waste Storage
		6.5.4 Permanent Waste Disposal
	6.6 Fusion
		6.6.1 Magnetic Confinement
		6.6.2 Laser Fusion
	6.7 Summary
7 Renewable Energy
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 Hydropower
		7.2.1 Environmental Effects
	7.3 Biomass
		7.3.1 Environmental Effects
	7.4 Geothermal Energy
		7.4.1 Environmental Effects
	7.5 Solar Energy
		7.5.1 The Flat Plate Collector
		7.5.2 Focusing Collectors
		7.5.3 Photovoltaic Cells
	7.6 Wind Power
		7.6.1 Environmental Effects
	7.7 Tidal Power
		7.7.1 Environmental Effects
	7.8 Ocean Wave Power
	7.9 Ocean Thermal Power
	7.10 Capital Cost of Renewable Electric Power
	7.11 Conclusion
8 Transportation
	8.1 Introduction
	8.2 Internal Combustion Engines for Highway Vehicles
		8.2.1 Combustion in SI and CI Engines
	8.3 Engine Power and Performance
		8.3.1 Engine Efficiency
	8.4 Vehicle Power and Performance
		8.4.1 Connecting the Engine to the Wheels
	8.5 Vehicle Fuel Efficiency
		8.5.1 U.S. Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Regulations and Test Cycles
		8.5.2 Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy
	8.6 Electric Drive Vehicles
		8.6.1 Vehicles Powered by Storage Batteries
		8.6.2 Hybrid Vehicles
		8.6.3 Fuel Cell Vehicles
	8.7 Vehicle Emissions
		8.7.1 U.S. Vehicle Emission Standards
		8.7.2 Reducing Vehicle Emissions
	8.8 Conclusion
9 Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuel Use
	9.1 Introduction
	9.2 Air Pollution
		9.2.1 U.S. Emission Standards
		9.2.2 U.S. Ambient Standards
		9.2.3 Health and Environmental Effects of Fossil-Fuel-Related Air Pollutants
		9.2.4 Air-Quality Modeling
		9.2.5 Photo-oxidants
		9.2.6 Acid Deposition
		9.2.7 Regional Haze and Visibility Impairment
	9.3 Water Pollution
		9.3.1 Acid Mine Drainage and Coal Washing
		9.3.2 Solid Waste from Power Plants
		9.3.3 Water Use and Thermal Pollution from Power Plants
		9.3.4 Atmospheric Deposition of Toxic Pollutants onto Surface Waters
	9.4 Land Pollution
	9.5 Conclusion
10 Global Warming
	10.1 Introduction
	10.2 What Is the Greenhouse Effect?
		10.2.1 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation
		10.2.2 Sun–Earth–Space Radiative Equilibrium
		10.2.3 Modeling Global Warming
		10.2.4 Feedback Effects
		10.2.5 Results of Global Warming Modeling
		10.2.6 Observed Trend of Global Warming
		10.2.7 Other Effects of Global Warming
	10.3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
		10.3.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Carbon Cycle
		10.3.2 Methane
		10.3.3 Nitrous Oxide
		10.3.4 Chlorofluorocarbons
		10.3.5 Ozone
		10.3.6 GHG Control
	10.4 Controlling CO[sub(2)] Emissions
		10.4.1 End-Use Efficiency Improvements and Conservation
		10.4.2 Supply-Side Efficiency Improvements
		10.4.3 CO[sub(2)] Capture
		10.4.4 CO[sub(2)] Sequestration
		10.4.5 CO[sub(2)] Utilization
		10.4.6 Shift to Non-fossil Energy Sources
	10.5 Conclusion
11 Concluding Remarks
	11.1 Energy Resources
	11.2 Regulating the Environmental Effects of Energy Use
	11.3 Global Warming
Appendix A: Measuring Energy
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Energy and the Environment

James A. Fay
Dan S. Golomb


Page 2


Page 168

Hydropower ◆ 145

TABLE 7.2 Average Energy Flux in Renewable Energy Systems

Heat Work
Source Area (W/m2) (W/m2)

Solar Collector 150 20

Photovoltaic Cell 30

Hydropower Drainage basin 0.01

Wind Turbine disk 40

Geothermal Field 0.1 0.02

Biomass Field 0.5 0.1

Ocean tidal Tidal pond 1

Ocean thermal Surface area

Ocean wave Frontal area 10,000

power output is higher for renewable than for conventional power plants, but the cost of fuel
for the conventional plant may more than offset its lower capital cost, making renewable energy

Energy from sunlight is only available about half of the time, and it reaches its higher intensities
in the several hours on either side of local noon. On cloudy and partly cloudy days, there is a
considerable reduction in solar insolation compared with clear days. Electric power generated from
sunlight must be stored or integrated into a distribution network with other power sources to be useful
in an industrial society. Similar considerations apply to wind, wave, and tidal power systems, which
are also intermittent sources. On the other hand, hydropower, biomass, and geothermal systems
have storage capabilities that permit them to deliver power when it is needed, as do conventional

In this chapter we explain the physical basis for each of the renewable energy sources listed
above and also discuss the technology used to collect and utilize that energy. In some cases it
is possible to identify costs and performance for systems in use. We also discuss environmental
effects which, while greatly reduced compared to traditional energy sources, can be significant.


Before steam engines were developed, mechanical power generated by river water flowing past
water wheels was the major source of power for industrial mills. These mills had to be located near
river falls so that water could be diverted from an impoundment upstream of the falls and fed to a
water wheel or turbine discharging to a lower level downstream of the falls. The need for mechanical
power and sites for industrial facilities soon outgrew the availability of hydropower, leading to the
introduction of steam engines and, eventually, steam electric power plants that distribute their
power via electric lines to consumers far removed from the power plant site. Nevertheless, today
hydropower continues to be an important source of electric power generation, supplying 10.7% of
U.S. and 19% of world electricity production.

In the United States in 1980, the installed hydropower capacity totaled about 63 GW generated
in 1384 plants distributed throughout the country, as listed in Table 7.3, operating at an average
capacity factor of 51%. It is estimated that the total potential capacity in the United States is about

Page 169


TABLE 7.3 Hydropower Development in the United States in 1980a

Installed Capacity
Region Number of Plants (GW)

Pacific Northwest 160 28.1

California 173 7.5

South Atlantic and Gulf 119 5.6

Great Lakes 203 3.9

Tennessee 47 3.7

Other 682 14.5

Total 1384 63.3

aData from Gulliver, John S., and Roger E. A. Arndt, 1980. Hydropower Engineering Handbook.
New York: McGraw-Hill.

three times this amount. Most of the U.S. hydropower plants are small, with the average power
being 46 MW. The largest, Grand Coulee, located on the Columbia river, can generate 7.5 GW.
Worldwide there are seven plants generating more than 5 GW located in Venezuela (10.6), United
States (7.5), Brazil/Paraguay (7.4), former Soviet Union (6.4 and 6.0), and Canada (5.3 and 5.2).
China is presently constructing a dam at the Three Gorges section of the Yangtse river that will
generate 18.2 GW.

An economical hydropower plant requires a reliable supply of water flow from an elevated
source that can be discharged at a lower elevation nearby. Most sites require the construction of
a dam at a location along a river where a large volume of water can be impounded behind the
dam at a level higher than the river bed. A pipe connected to the upstream reservoir (called a
penstock) conducts high-pressure water to the inlet of a hydroturbine located at a level at or below
the downstream riverbed, into which the turbine discharge water is released, generating mechanical
power to turn an electric generator. If the difference in height of the water between upstream and
downstream of the dam is h (called the head) and the volume flow rate of water through the turbine
is Q, then the maximum power the turbine can generate is ρghQ, where ρ = 1E(3) kg/m3 is the
mass density of water and g = 9.8 m/s2 is the acceleration of gravity. For a 1000-MW hydropower
plant utilizing a head of 10 m, a flow of more than 1E(4) m3/s would be required. Only the largest
of rivers can supply flows of this magnitude.

River water flow depends upon precipitation in the drainage basin upstream of a dam site. Only
a fraction of the precipitation reaches the river course, with the remainder being lost to evaporation
into the atmosphere and recharging of the underground water aquifer. On a seasonal or annual
basis, precipitation and river flow is variable, so that it is desirable to impound a volume behind the
hydropower plant dam that can be used in times of low river inflow. In locations where a substantial
portion of annual precipitation is in the form of snow, its sudden melting in the spring will produce
a surge in flow that may exceed the capacity of the hydroplant to utilize or store. It is usually not
possible or economical to utilize the entire annual river flow to produce power.

In mountainous terrain it may be possible to locate sites having a large head, of the order
of several hundreds of meters, but with only moderate or low flow rates. Such sites may prove
economical because of the large power output per unit of water flow. On the other hand, low-head
“run of the river” plants that store no water behind their dams but can utilize whatever flow is
available during most of the year have also proved economical.

Page 336

Index ◆ 313

dose equivalent, 125
rem 125
sievert, 125

gamma, 122
ionizing, 122, 125
protection, 125

Radiative forcing, 272
Radiative temperature, 272
Radioactivity, 122

decay rate, 124
half life, 124
isotope, 124
units, 124

becquerel, 124
curie, 124

Radon, 112
Rankine cycle, 48, 88
Receptor modeling, 235
Refrigeration, 21, 56
Regional haze, 256
Reheating, 50
Renewable energy, 4, 7, 143

See also Biomass energy, Geothermal
energy, Hydropower, Ocean thermal
power, Ocean tidal power, Ocean
wave power, Photovoltaic cell, Solar
energy, Wind power

capital cost, 181–82
energy flux, 145t
production, 144t
source, 14

Rolling resistance, 200

Sea level, 277
Second law of thermodynamics,

30, 36
Selective catalytic reduction, 111
Selective non-catalytic reduction, 111
Sequestration, 65
SI units, 304t

prefixes, 306t
Solar energy, 155–63

clear sky irradiance, 158t
flat plate collector, 159

efficiency, 160

focusing collector, 161
irradiance, 155, 156f, 157, 158t,

269, 270f
spectral distribution, 156f

Solar spectrum, 156f, 270f
irradiance, 269

Solid waste, 112, 259
Soot, 261
Sorbent injection, 107
Source apportionment, 255
Source–receptor modeling, 234
Specific fuel consumption, 62
Specific heat

constant-pressure, 38
constant-volume, 38

Stability categories, 235
Stack height, 238
Stack plume, 237
Staged combustion, 109
State implementation plan, 233
Steady flow, 39
Steam power plant, 92f
Stoichiometric ratio, 41, 90
Stratosphere, 242, 273
Sulfur oxides, 92f

emission control, 104, 230
emission rate, 229
emission standard, 238

Superheating, 50, 90
Surface mining, 272
Synthetic fuel, 63

efficiency, 64

Tar sands, 25

absolute, 36
adiabatic combustion, 42, 43, 47

Terrestrial radiation, 269
Terrestrial sequestration, 292
Thermal efficiency, 53
Thermal pollution, 97, 260
Thermodynamics, 30

efficiency, 46
fuel cell, 60
heat engine, 46

Page 337

314 ◆ INDEX

Thermodynamics (cont.)
laws, 30

first law, 30, 35
second law, 30, 36

properties, 37–38
extensive, 37
fuel combustion, 44t
intensive, 37
specific extensive, 37

state variables, 32
Thermosphere, 273
Thorium, 121
Tidal power, 143, 172–76

environmental effects, 176
capacity factor, 175f
ideal power, 174
plant characteristics, 175t
tidal period, 173

Toxic pollutants, 231, 260
Transfer coefficients, 253
Transformer, 70
Transportation, 157. See also Highway

energy, 5, 8

Troposphere, 242, 273

gas, 53, 95
steam, 48, 93
wind. See Wind power

Uranium, 121f
hexafluoride, 135
oxide, 127, 134
yellow cake, 134

Urban airshed model, 245
U.S. commercial units, 305t

Vapor compression cycle, 56
Visibility impairment, 104, 233, 256
Volatile organic compounds, 244

Water gas shift reaction, 114, 287
Water pollution, 258

acid mine drainage, 258
atmospheric deposition to surface waters,

coal washing, 258
solid waste from power plants, 259
thermal pollution, 260

Wet deposition, 247
Wet scrubber, 107
Wind advection, 234
Wind power, 143, 166–72

energy flux, 170
environmental effects, 172
farm, 171
probability distribution, 171
turbine, 167

power, 168
power coefficient, 169

Wind statistics, 234
Wind turbine. See Wind power
Work, 33

interaction, 34

X rays, 122

Zircalloy, 127

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