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TitleEnvironmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow
TagsPhotosynthesis Celsius Turbulence Buoyancy Chlorophyll
File Size7.6 MB
Total Pages485
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
About the author
Dedication
Glossary
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
List of symbols
	Reminder
	Dimensionless numbers
	Notes
Part 1 Introduction to Open Channel Flows
	1. Introduction
		Summary
		1.1 Presentation
			1.1.1 Discussion: hydraulic engineering through history
		1.2 Fluid properties
		1.3 Fluid statics
		1.4 Open channel flows
		1.5 Exercises
	2. Fundamentals of open channel flows
		Summary
		2.1 Presentation
			Basic definitions
		2.2 Fundamental principles
			Discussion: the Bernoulli equation
			Applications to open channel flow situations
		2.3 Open channel hydraulics of short, frictionless transitions
			Application to horizontal channels
			Application to non-horizontal channels
			Froude number
			Discussion
		2.4 The hydraulic jump
		2.5 Open channel flow in long channels
			2.5.1 Presentation
			2.5.2 Uniform equilibrium flows
			2.5.3 GVF calculations
				Integration of the GVF equation
		2.6 Summary
		2.7 Exercises
Part 2 Turbulent Mixing and Dispersion in Rivers and Estuaries: An Introduction
	3. Introduction to mixing and dispersion in natural waterways
		3.1 Introduction
			Discussion
		3.2 Laminar and turbulent flows
			Shear stress
		3.3 Basic definitions
		3.4 Structure of the section
		3.5 Appendix A – Application: buoyancy force exerted on a submerged air bubble
			Spherical bubble
			Bubble rise velocity in still water
			Bubble rise velocity in a non-hydrostatic pressure gradient
		3.6 Appendix B – Freshwater properties
		3.7 Exercises
		3.8 Exercise solutions
	4. Turbulent shear flows
		4.1 Presentation
			Summary
			DISCUSSION
			The Couette flow
		4.2 Jets and wakes
			Discussion
		4.3 Boundary layer flows
			Velocity distribution
			Applications
			Turbulent boundary layer development along a smooth flat plate
		4.4 Fully developed open channel flows
		4.5 Mixing in turbulent shear flows
			4.5.1 Presentation
			4.5.2 Discussion: effects of contaminants on shear flows
		4.6 Exercises
		4.7 Exercise solutions
	5. Diffusion: basic theory
		5.1 Basic equations
		Summary
		5.2 Applications
			5.2.1 Initial mass slug
				DISCUSSION
			5.2.2 Initial step function C[sub(m)](x, 0)
			5.2.3 Sudden increase in mass concentration at the origin
				DISCUSSION
			5.2.4 Effects of solid boundaries
		5.3 Appendix A – Mathematical aids
			Differential operators
			Error function
			Notation
			Constants
			Mathematical bibliography
		5.4 Exercises
		5.5 Exercise solutions
	6. Advective diffusion
		Summary
		6.1 Basic equations
		6.2 Basic applications
			6.2.1 Advective diffusion of a sharp front
			6.2.2 Initial mass slug introduced at t = 0 and x = 0
			6.2.3 Transverse mixing of two streams with different concentrations
			6.2.4 Sudden mass contamination in a river
		6.3 Two- and three-dimensional applications
		6.4 Exercises
		6.5 Exercise solutions
	7. Turbulent dispersion and mixing: 1. Vertical and transverse mixing
		Summary
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 Flow resistance in open channel flows
		7.3 Vertical and transverse (lateral) mixing in turbulent river flows
			Discussion
		7.4 Turbulent mixing applications
			7.4.1 Transverse mixing downstream of a continuous point source
			7.4.2 Transverse mixing downstream of a mass slug injection
			7.4.3 Complete transverse mixing
		7.5 Discussion
			7.5.1 Initial mixing
			7.5.2 Applications
		7.6 Appendix A – Friction factor calculations
		7.7 Appendix B – Random walk model
		7.8 Appendix C – Turbulent mixing in hydraulic jumps and bores
		7.9 Exercises
		7.10 Exercise solutions
	8. Turbulent dispersion and mixing: 2. Longitudinal dispersion
		Summary
		8.1 Introduction
		8.2 One-dimensional turbulent dispersion
		8.3 Longitudinal dispersion in natural streams
			8.3.1 Basic equation
				Discussion
			8.3.2 Dispersion coefficient in natural rivers
				Applications
		8.4 Approximate models for longitudinal dispersion
			8.4.1 The ‘frozen cloud’ approximation
				DISCUSSION
				Application
			8.4.2 Discussion: the Hayami solution
				DISCUSSION
		8.5 Design applications
			8.5.1 Application No. 1
			8.5.2 Application No. 2
				DISCUSSION
		8.6 Exercises
		8.7 Exercise solutions
	9. Turbulent dispersion in natural systems
		Summary
		9.1 Introduction
			Definitions
		9.2 Longitudinal dispersion in natural rivers with dead zones
			9.2.1 Introduction
			9.2.2 Basic equation
			9.2.3 Analytical solutions (instantaneous mass slug injection)
		9.3 Dispersion and transport of reactive contaminants
			9.3.1 Basic equation
			9.3.2 Applications
				Sudden mass slug contamination in a river
				Sudden increase in mass concentration at the origin
			9.3.3 Discussion
		9.4 Transport with reaction
			9.4.1 Basic equation
			9.4.2 Application to dissolved oxygen content (DOC) in natural streams
				Re-oxygenation rate constant and decay rate
			9.4.3 DO sag analysis
		9.5 Appendix A – Air–water mass transfer in air–water flows
		9.6 Appendix B – Solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water
			Solubility of oxygen
			Volumetric solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon
		9.7 Appendix C – Molecular diffusion coefficients in water (after Chanson 1997a)
		9.8 Exercises
		9.9 Exercise solutions
	10. Mixing in estuaries
		Summary
		10.1 Presentation
			Seawater properties
		10.2 Basic mechanisms
			10.2.1 Mixing caused by winds
			10.2.2 Mixing caused by tides
				Shear effect in estuaries
				Tidal pumping
				Tidal trapping
			10.2.3 Mixing caused by the river
			10.2.4 Discussion: mixing induced by tidal bores
		10.3 Applications
			10.3.1 Salt wedges
			10.3.2 Steady vertical circulation
		10.4 Turbulent mixing and dispersion coefficients in estuaries
		10.5 Applications
			10.5.1 Application no. 1: Ino-hana Lake, Hama-matsu (Japan)
				Discussion
			10.5.2 Application no. 2: Eprapah Creek, Queensland (Australia)
				Discussion
			10.5.3 Application no. 3: Strait of Gibraltar
				Discussion
		10.6 Appendix A – Observations of mixing and dispersion coefficients in estuarine zones
			10.6.1 Field observations of mixing in tidal bores
		10.7 Exercises
		10.8 Exercise solutions
	Part 2 Revision exercises
		Assignment solutions
		DISCUSSION
Part 3 Introduction to Unsteady Open Channel Flows
	11. Unsteady open channel flows: 1. Basic equations
		Summary
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 Basic equations
			11.2.1 Presentation
			11.2.2 Integral form of the Saint-Venant equations
			11.2.3 Differential form of the Saint-Venant equations
				Discussion
			11.2.4 Flow resistance estimate
				Discussion
				Flood plain calculations
		11.3 Method of characteristics
			11.3.1 Introduction
				Discussion: graphical solution of the characteristic system of equations
			11.3.2 Boundary conditions
				Initial and boundary conditions
				Types of boundary conditions
				DISCUSSION
			11.3.3 Application: numerical integration of the method of characteristics
		11.4 Discussion
			11.4.1 The dynamic equation
				Simplification of the dynamic wave equation for unsteady flows
			11.4.2 Limitations of the Saint-Venant equations
				Flood plains
				Non-hydrostatic pressure distributions
				Sharp discontinuities
				DISCUSSION
			11.4.3 Summary
		11.5 Exercises
		11.6 Exercise solutions
	12. Unsteady open channel flows: 2. Applications
		Summary
		12.1 Introduction
		12.2 Propagation of waves
			12.2.1 Propagation of a small wave
			12.2.2 Propagation of a known discharge (monoclinal wave)
		12.3 The simple wave problem
			12.3.1 Basic equations
			12.3.2 Application
				Discussion
		12.4 Positive and negative surges
			12.4.1 Presentation
			12.4.2 Positive surge
				Simple wave calculations of a positive surge
				Positive surge propagating in uniform equilibrium flow
				Discussion
			12.4.3 Negative surge
				Sudden complete opening
				Sudden partial opening
				Negative surge in a forebay
		12.5 The kinematic wave problem
			12.5.1 Presentation
			12.5.2 Discussion
		12.6 The diffusion wave problem
			12.6.1 Presentation
			12.6.2 Discussion
			12.6.3 The Cunge–Muskingum method
				Empiricism: the Muskingum method!?
				Cunge–Muskingum method
		12.7 Appendix A – Gaussian error functions
			12.7.1 Gaussian error function
			12.7.2 Complementary error function
		12.8 Exercises
		12.9 Exercise solutions
	13. Unsteady open channel flows: 3. Application to dam break wave
		Summary
		13.1 Introduction
			Discussion: man-made dam failures
		13.2 Dam break wave in a horizontal channel
			13.2.1 Dam break in a dry channel
			13.2.2 Dam break in a horizontal channel initially filled with water Presentation
				Extension to non-zero initial flow velocity
				Discussion
		13.3 Effects of flow resistance
			13.3.1 Flow resistance effect on dam break wave on horizontal channel
				Dam break wave calculations with flow resistance
			13.3.2 Dam break wave down a sloping channel
				Basic theory
				Dam break wave down a sloping stepped chute
			13.3.3 Further dam break wave conditions
				DISCUSSION
		13.4 Embankment dam failures
			13.4.1 Introduction
			13.4.2 Embankment breach
				Breach development
		13.5 Related flow situations
		13.6 Exercises
		13.7 Exercise solutions
	14. Numerical modelling of unsteady open channel flows
		Summary
		14.1 Introduction
			Finite differences methods
		14.2 Explicit finite difference methods
			14.2.1 Lax diffusive method
				Boundary conditions
			14.2.2 Leap-frog scheme
			14.2.3 Discussion
		14.3 Implicit finite difference methods
			Discussion
		14.4 Exercises
	Part 3 Revision exercises
		Revision exercise no. 1
		Revision exercise no. 2
		Revision exercise no. 3
		Revision exercise no. 4
			Discussion
Part 4 Interactions between Flowing Water and its Surroundings
	15. Interactions between flowing water and its surroundings: introduction
		15.1 Presentation
		15.2 Terminology
		15.3 Structure of this section
	16. Interaction between flowing water and solid boundaries: sediment processes
		Summary
		16.1 Introduction
			Forces acting on a sediment particle
		16.2 Physical properties of sediments
			16.2.1 Introduction
			16.2.2 Particle fall velocity
				Discussion
		16.3 Threshold of sediment bed motion
			16.3.1 Introduction
			16.3.2 Threshold of bed-load motion
			16.3.3 Initiation of sediment suspension
		16.4 Sediment transport
			16.4.1 Bed-load transport rate
				Discussion
			16.4.2 Suspension transport rate
				DISCUSSION
		16.5 Total sediment transport rate
			16.5.1 Presentation
				DISCUSSION: BED FORMS IN RIVERS AND STREAMS
			16.5.2 Flow resistance in natural systems
			16.5.3 Design calculations
		16.6 Exercises
	17. Interaction between flowing water and free surfaces: self-aeration and air entrainment
		Summary
		17.1 Introduction
		17.2 Free-surface aeration in turbulent flows: basic mechanisms
			17.2.1 Presentation
			17.2.2 Local/singular aeration mechanism: air entrapment at plunging jets
			17.2.3 Interfacial aeration process: self-aeration down a steep chute
				DISCUSSION
			17.2.4 Interfacial aeration process: self-aeration at water jet interfaces
				Discussion
		17.3 Dimensional analysis and similitude
			17.3.1 Introduction
			17.3.2 Applications
				Air entrainment at vertical plunging jets
				Air entrainment in steep chute flows
				DISCUSSION
			17.3.3 Dynamic similarity and scale effects
		17.4 Basic metrology in air–water flow studies
			17.4.1 Introduction
			17.4.2 Signal processing and data analysis
			17.4.3 Unsteady flow measurements
		17.5 Applications
			17.5.1 Application to plunging jet flows
				General considerations
				Discussion
			17.5.2 Application to steep chute flows
				Drag reduction in self-aerated chute flows
		17.6 Appendix A – Air bubble diffusion in plunging jet flows (after Chanson 1997a)
			Two-dimensional plunging jets
			Circular plunging jets
		17.7 Appendix B – Air bubble diffusion in self-aerated supercritical flows
			Discussion
		17.8 Appendix C – Air bubble diffusion in high-velocity water jets
			Two-dimensional free-shear layers
			Circular jets
			Discussion
		17.9 Exercises
Appendix A: Constants and fluid properties
	A.1 Acceleration of gravity
	A.2 Properties of water
	A.3 Gas properties
		Basic equations
		Physical properties
		Atmospheric parameters
		Viscosity of air
Appendix B: Unit conversions
	B.1 Introduction
	B.2 Units and conversion factors
References
	Abbreviations of journals and institutions
	Common bibliographical abbreviations
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
                        

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