Title | Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow |
---|---|

Tags | Photosynthesis Celsius Turbulence Buoyancy Chlorophyll |

File Size | 7.6 MB |

Total Pages | 485 |

Cover Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows Contents Preface Acknowledgements About the author Dedication Glossary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y List of symbols Reminder Dimensionless numbers Notes Part 1 Introduction to Open Channel Flows 1. Introduction Summary 1.1 Presentation 1.1.1 Discussion: hydraulic engineering through history 1.2 Fluid properties 1.3 Fluid statics 1.4 Open channel flows 1.5 Exercises 2. Fundamentals of open channel flows Summary 2.1 Presentation Basic definitions 2.2 Fundamental principles Discussion: the Bernoulli equation Applications to open channel flow situations 2.3 Open channel hydraulics of short, frictionless transitions Application to horizontal channels Application to non-horizontal channels Froude number Discussion 2.4 The hydraulic jump 2.5 Open channel flow in long channels 2.5.1 Presentation 2.5.2 Uniform equilibrium flows 2.5.3 GVF calculations Integration of the GVF equation 2.6 Summary 2.7 Exercises Part 2 Turbulent Mixing and Dispersion in Rivers and Estuaries: An Introduction 3. Introduction to mixing and dispersion in natural waterways 3.1 Introduction Discussion 3.2 Laminar and turbulent flows Shear stress 3.3 Basic definitions 3.4 Structure of the section 3.5 Appendix A – Application: buoyancy force exerted on a submerged air bubble Spherical bubble Bubble rise velocity in still water Bubble rise velocity in a non-hydrostatic pressure gradient 3.6 Appendix B – Freshwater properties 3.7 Exercises 3.8 Exercise solutions 4. Turbulent shear flows 4.1 Presentation Summary DISCUSSION The Couette flow 4.2 Jets and wakes Discussion 4.3 Boundary layer flows Velocity distribution Applications Turbulent boundary layer development along a smooth flat plate 4.4 Fully developed open channel flows 4.5 Mixing in turbulent shear flows 4.5.1 Presentation 4.5.2 Discussion: effects of contaminants on shear flows 4.6 Exercises 4.7 Exercise solutions 5. Diffusion: basic theory 5.1 Basic equations Summary 5.2 Applications 5.2.1 Initial mass slug DISCUSSION 5.2.2 Initial step function C[sub(m)](x, 0) 5.2.3 Sudden increase in mass concentration at the origin DISCUSSION 5.2.4 Effects of solid boundaries 5.3 Appendix A – Mathematical aids Differential operators Error function Notation Constants Mathematical bibliography 5.4 Exercises 5.5 Exercise solutions 6. Advective diffusion Summary 6.1 Basic equations 6.2 Basic applications 6.2.1 Advective diffusion of a sharp front 6.2.2 Initial mass slug introduced at t = 0 and x = 0 6.2.3 Transverse mixing of two streams with different concentrations 6.2.4 Sudden mass contamination in a river 6.3 Two- and three-dimensional applications 6.4 Exercises 6.5 Exercise solutions 7. Turbulent dispersion and mixing: 1. Vertical and transverse mixing Summary 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Flow resistance in open channel flows 7.3 Vertical and transverse (lateral) mixing in turbulent river flows Discussion 7.4 Turbulent mixing applications 7.4.1 Transverse mixing downstream of a continuous point source 7.4.2 Transverse mixing downstream of a mass slug injection 7.4.3 Complete transverse mixing 7.5 Discussion 7.5.1 Initial mixing 7.5.2 Applications 7.6 Appendix A – Friction factor calculations 7.7 Appendix B – Random walk model 7.8 Appendix C – Turbulent mixing in hydraulic jumps and bores 7.9 Exercises 7.10 Exercise solutions 8. Turbulent dispersion and mixing: 2. Longitudinal dispersion Summary 8.1 Introduction 8.2 One-dimensional turbulent dispersion 8.3 Longitudinal dispersion in natural streams 8.3.1 Basic equation Discussion 8.3.2 Dispersion coefficient in natural rivers Applications 8.4 Approximate models for longitudinal dispersion 8.4.1 The ‘frozen cloud’ approximation DISCUSSION Application 8.4.2 Discussion: the Hayami solution DISCUSSION 8.5 Design applications 8.5.1 Application No. 1 8.5.2 Application No. 2 DISCUSSION 8.6 Exercises 8.7 Exercise solutions 9. Turbulent dispersion in natural systems Summary 9.1 Introduction Definitions 9.2 Longitudinal dispersion in natural rivers with dead zones 9.2.1 Introduction 9.2.2 Basic equation 9.2.3 Analytical solutions (instantaneous mass slug injection) 9.3 Dispersion and transport of reactive contaminants 9.3.1 Basic equation 9.3.2 Applications Sudden mass slug contamination in a river Sudden increase in mass concentration at the origin 9.3.3 Discussion 9.4 Transport with reaction 9.4.1 Basic equation 9.4.2 Application to dissolved oxygen content (DOC) in natural streams Re-oxygenation rate constant and decay rate 9.4.3 DO sag analysis 9.5 Appendix A – Air–water mass transfer in air–water flows 9.6 Appendix B – Solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water Solubility of oxygen Volumetric solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon 9.7 Appendix C – Molecular diffusion coefficients in water (after Chanson 1997a) 9.8 Exercises 9.9 Exercise solutions 10. Mixing in estuaries Summary 10.1 Presentation Seawater properties 10.2 Basic mechanisms 10.2.1 Mixing caused by winds 10.2.2 Mixing caused by tides Shear effect in estuaries Tidal pumping Tidal trapping 10.2.3 Mixing caused by the river 10.2.4 Discussion: mixing induced by tidal bores 10.3 Applications 10.3.1 Salt wedges 10.3.2 Steady vertical circulation 10.4 Turbulent mixing and dispersion coefficients in estuaries 10.5 Applications 10.5.1 Application no. 1: Ino-hana Lake, Hama-matsu (Japan) Discussion 10.5.2 Application no. 2: Eprapah Creek, Queensland (Australia) Discussion 10.5.3 Application no. 3: Strait of Gibraltar Discussion 10.6 Appendix A – Observations of mixing and dispersion coefficients in estuarine zones 10.6.1 Field observations of mixing in tidal bores 10.7 Exercises 10.8 Exercise solutions Part 2 Revision exercises Assignment solutions DISCUSSION Part 3 Introduction to Unsteady Open Channel Flows 11. Unsteady open channel flows: 1. Basic equations Summary 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Basic equations 11.2.1 Presentation 11.2.2 Integral form of the Saint-Venant equations 11.2.3 Differential form of the Saint-Venant equations Discussion 11.2.4 Flow resistance estimate Discussion Flood plain calculations 11.3 Method of characteristics 11.3.1 Introduction Discussion: graphical solution of the characteristic system of equations 11.3.2 Boundary conditions Initial and boundary conditions Types of boundary conditions DISCUSSION 11.3.3 Application: numerical integration of the method of characteristics 11.4 Discussion 11.4.1 The dynamic equation Simplification of the dynamic wave equation for unsteady flows 11.4.2 Limitations of the Saint-Venant equations Flood plains Non-hydrostatic pressure distributions Sharp discontinuities DISCUSSION 11.4.3 Summary 11.5 Exercises 11.6 Exercise solutions 12. Unsteady open channel flows: 2. Applications Summary 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Propagation of waves 12.2.1 Propagation of a small wave 12.2.2 Propagation of a known discharge (monoclinal wave) 12.3 The simple wave problem 12.3.1 Basic equations 12.3.2 Application Discussion 12.4 Positive and negative surges 12.4.1 Presentation 12.4.2 Positive surge Simple wave calculations of a positive surge Positive surge propagating in uniform equilibrium flow Discussion 12.4.3 Negative surge Sudden complete opening Sudden partial opening Negative surge in a forebay 12.5 The kinematic wave problem 12.5.1 Presentation 12.5.2 Discussion 12.6 The diffusion wave problem 12.6.1 Presentation 12.6.2 Discussion 12.6.3 The Cunge–Muskingum method Empiricism: the Muskingum method!? Cunge–Muskingum method 12.7 Appendix A – Gaussian error functions 12.7.1 Gaussian error function 12.7.2 Complementary error function 12.8 Exercises 12.9 Exercise solutions 13. Unsteady open channel flows: 3. Application to dam break wave Summary 13.1 Introduction Discussion: man-made dam failures 13.2 Dam break wave in a horizontal channel 13.2.1 Dam break in a dry channel 13.2.2 Dam break in a horizontal channel initially filled with water Presentation Extension to non-zero initial flow velocity Discussion 13.3 Effects of flow resistance 13.3.1 Flow resistance effect on dam break wave on horizontal channel Dam break wave calculations with flow resistance 13.3.2 Dam break wave down a sloping channel Basic theory Dam break wave down a sloping stepped chute 13.3.3 Further dam break wave conditions DISCUSSION 13.4 Embankment dam failures 13.4.1 Introduction 13.4.2 Embankment breach Breach development 13.5 Related flow situations 13.6 Exercises 13.7 Exercise solutions 14. Numerical modelling of unsteady open channel flows Summary 14.1 Introduction Finite differences methods 14.2 Explicit finite difference methods 14.2.1 Lax diffusive method Boundary conditions 14.2.2 Leap-frog scheme 14.2.3 Discussion 14.3 Implicit finite difference methods Discussion 14.4 Exercises Part 3 Revision exercises Revision exercise no. 1 Revision exercise no. 2 Revision exercise no. 3 Revision exercise no. 4 Discussion Part 4 Interactions between Flowing Water and its Surroundings 15. Interactions between flowing water and its surroundings: introduction 15.1 Presentation 15.2 Terminology 15.3 Structure of this section 16. Interaction between flowing water and solid boundaries: sediment processes Summary 16.1 Introduction Forces acting on a sediment particle 16.2 Physical properties of sediments 16.2.1 Introduction 16.2.2 Particle fall velocity Discussion 16.3 Threshold of sediment bed motion 16.3.1 Introduction 16.3.2 Threshold of bed-load motion 16.3.3 Initiation of sediment suspension 16.4 Sediment transport 16.4.1 Bed-load transport rate Discussion 16.4.2 Suspension transport rate DISCUSSION 16.5 Total sediment transport rate 16.5.1 Presentation DISCUSSION: BED FORMS IN RIVERS AND STREAMS 16.5.2 Flow resistance in natural systems 16.5.3 Design calculations 16.6 Exercises 17. Interaction between flowing water and free surfaces: self-aeration and air entrainment Summary 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Free-surface aeration in turbulent flows: basic mechanisms 17.2.1 Presentation 17.2.2 Local/singular aeration mechanism: air entrapment at plunging jets 17.2.3 Interfacial aeration process: self-aeration down a steep chute DISCUSSION 17.2.4 Interfacial aeration process: self-aeration at water jet interfaces Discussion 17.3 Dimensional analysis and similitude 17.3.1 Introduction 17.3.2 Applications Air entrainment at vertical plunging jets Air entrainment in steep chute flows DISCUSSION 17.3.3 Dynamic similarity and scale effects 17.4 Basic metrology in air–water flow studies 17.4.1 Introduction 17.4.2 Signal processing and data analysis 17.4.3 Unsteady flow measurements 17.5 Applications 17.5.1 Application to plunging jet flows General considerations Discussion 17.5.2 Application to steep chute flows Drag reduction in self-aerated chute flows 17.6 Appendix A – Air bubble diffusion in plunging jet flows (after Chanson 1997a) Two-dimensional plunging jets Circular plunging jets 17.7 Appendix B – Air bubble diffusion in self-aerated supercritical flows Discussion 17.8 Appendix C – Air bubble diffusion in high-velocity water jets Two-dimensional free-shear layers Circular jets Discussion 17.9 Exercises Appendix A: Constants and fluid properties A.1 Acceleration of gravity A.2 Properties of water A.3 Gas properties Basic equations Physical properties Atmospheric parameters Viscosity of air Appendix B: Unit conversions B.1 Introduction B.2 Units and conversion factors References Abbreviations of journals and institutions Common bibliographical abbreviations Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y

More Documents

**~: Disclaimer :~**

PDF.Capital is a document sharing platform where anyone can register and upload documents. If any content listed here are owned by you and want to remove it please send us removal request at *[email protected]*

© PDF.Capital 2022 All rights reserved

Made with by WebSpice