Download Future Climate PDF

TitleFuture Climate
LanguageEnglish
File Size7.5 MB
Total Pages155
Table of Contents
                            1.1 Introduction
1.2 Which Climate Stations are Used?
1.3 Detailed Output Points
1.4 Why are we doing it?
1.5 How Did We Approach the Study?
1.6 Why Did We Take This Approach?
2.1 North America
2.2 Ontario
2.3 The GTA’s Current Climate
	2.3.1 Introduction
	2.3.2 Average, Minimum and Maximum Temperature Trends
	2.3.3 Extreme Temperatures
	2.3.4 Rainfall, Snowfall and Total Precipitation
	2.3.5 Storm Intensity, Duration and Frequency of Occurrence
	2.3.6 Gust Winds
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Climate Outlook for the 21st Century
3.3 Northern Latitude Storm Tracks
3.4 Loss of Arctic Sea Ice
	3.4.1 The Ice-Albedo Feedback Mechanism
3.5 What Emissions of CO2 Drive the Future?
3.6 Climate Oscillations
	3.6.1 El Niño Southern Oscillation
	3.6.3 Pacific Decadal Oscillation
4.1 Approaches to Modelling the Future
	4.1.1 What is a climate model?
	4.1.2. Evolution of Climate Models
	4.1.3. How are Climate Projections Made?
4.2 The Approach Used for this Project and Why
	4.2.1  The Climate Models HadCM3 and PRECIS
	4.2.2 Overview of Approach Used
4.3 Introduction to the Climate Model Used
	4.3.1 Introduction
	4.3.2 Generation of Climatologies
	4.3.3 Comparisons of Climate Model Ensemble with Observations
	4.3.4 Global and Regional Models
	4.3.5 Comparison of Climate Model Output with Observations
4.4 Introduction to the Weather Model Used
	4.4.1 The FReSH System
		4.4.1.1 Pre-Processor
		4.4.1.2 The Weather Forecast Model
		4.4.1.3 Post Processor
		4.4.1.4 Graphics Package
	4.4.2 How is FReSH Driven?
4.5 How Good is the 10-Year Simulation Compared to the Observed Data?
	4.5.1 How Well Does the Local Weather Model Work?
		4.5.1.1 Temperature
		4.5.1.2 Precipitation
		4.5.1.3 Wind
		4.5.1.4 Specific Historical Event
	4.5.2 How Well Does the PRECIS-FReSH Combination Work?
		4.5.2.1 Temperature
		4.5.2.2 Precipitation
		4.5.2.3 Wind
4.6 Summary
5.1 Future Period
	5.1.1 Temperature
	5.1.2 Degree-Days
	5.1.3 Humidex
	5.1.4 Precipitation
		5.1.4.1 Rainfall, Snowfall and Total Precipitation
	5.1.5 Number of Precipitation, Snowfall and Rainfall Days
	5.1.6 Return Periods
		5.1.6.1 Summary Statistics
		5.1.6.2 Estimated Return Periods
	5.1.7 Wind Events
		5.1.7.1 Average Winds, Maximum Winds and Gust Winds
		5.1.7.2 Wind Speed
		5.1.7.3 Wind Chill
	5.1.8 Storms
		5.1.8.1 Storm Relative Helicity
		5.1.8.2 Convective Available Potential Energy
		5.1.8.3 The Energy Helicity Index
6.1 Certainty in Future Climate Change and Its Direction
6.2 Overview
6.3 Future Period
6.5 Combinations of Parameters
6.6 Final Findings
	6.6.1 Projected Climate Changes
		6.6.1.1 Future Period: 2040-2049 Compared to 2000-2009
		6.6.1.2 Across the Regional Municipality of Durham
                        

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