Download Handbook of International Electrical Safety Practices - Princeton Energy Resources Int'l (Wiley, 2010) BBS PDF

TitleHandbook of International Electrical Safety Practices - Princeton Energy Resources Int'l (Wiley, 2010) BBS
File Size28.4 MB
Total Pages762
Table of Contents
                            Handbook of International Electrical Safety Practices
	Contents
	Acknowledgement
	List of contributors
	Glossary of abbreviations
	Preface
	Chapter 1 How to Evaluate Safety Programs
		1.1 Introduction
		1.2 Creating a Culture of Safety
		1.3 Good Housekeeping
			1.3.1 General Information
				1.3.1.1 Establishing a Good Housekeeping Program
				1.3.1.2 Dust and Dirt Removal
				1.3.1.3 Employee Facilities
				1.3.1.4 Surfaces
				1.3.1.5 Light Fixtures
				1.3.1.6 Aisles and Stairways
				1.3.1.7 Spill Control
				1.3.1.8 Tools and Equipment
				1.3.1.9 Maintenance
				1.3.1.10 Waste Disposal
				1.3.1.11 Storage
		1.4 New Employee Orientation
		1.5 Worker Rights
	Chapter 2 Meters and Monitors
		2.1 Air Quality Testing and Monitoring
			2.1.1 Introduction
			2.1.2 Methods of Sampling and Testing
			2.1.3 Samplers and Monitors
				2.1.3.1 Diffusive : Samplers for Air Monitoring
				2.1.3.2 Color Diffusion Tubes
				2.1.3.3 Active Samplers
				2.1.3.4 Continuous Emissions Monitors
			2.1.4 Batteries
			2.1.5 Adverse Conditions
			2.1.6 Annex–Instrument Chart
			2.1.7 Bibliography
		2.2 Noise Testing and Monitoring
			2.2.1 Introduction
			2.2.2 Noise Monitors and Meters
				2.2.2.1 Sound Level Meters
				2.2.2.2 Personal Dosimeters
			2.2.3 Occupational Noise Exposure Standard
				2.2.3.1 Allowable Levels of Exposure
				2.2.3.2 Hearing Conservation Program
				2.2.3.3 Recordkeeping
			2.2.4 Bibliography
		2.3 Radiation Monitors and Meters
			2.3.1 Introduction
			2.3.2 Light
			2.3.3 Ionizing Radiation
			2.3.4 Nonionizing Radiation
			2.3.5 Survey Meters for Radiation Detection
				2.3.5.1 Ion Chamber Counter
				2.3.5.2 Proportional Counter
				2.3.5.3 Geiger-Müller (GM) Counter
				2.3.5.4 Comparison of Gas Filled Detectors
			2.3.6 Pocket Dosimeters
				2.3.6.1 Direct Read Pocket Dosimeter
				2.3.6.2 Digital Electronic Dosimeter
			2.3.7 Audible Alarm Rate Meters and Digital Electronic Dosimeters
			2.3.8 Film Badges
			2.3.9 Thermoluminescent Dosimeters
			2.3.10 Annex – Guide to Meter Selection and Applications
			2.3.11 Bibliography
		2.4 Electrical/Electronics Testing Meters
			2.4.1 Introduction
			2.4.2 Electronic Test Equipment Types
				2.4.2.1 Basic Test Equipment
				2.4.2.2 Probes
				2.4.2.3 Analyzers
				2.4.2.4 Signal-generating devices
				2.4.2.5 Miscellaneous Devices
			2.4.3 General Information on Safe Use
	Chapter 3 General Safety Practices
		3.1 Safe Chemical Handling
			3.1.1 Introduction
			3.1.2 Reference Standards
				3.1.2.1 Explanation of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
				3.1.2.2 Occupational Safety and Health Administration
				3.1.2.3 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
				3.1.2.4 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
				3.1.2.5 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
				3.1.2.6 World Health Organization
			3.1.3 Safe Chemical Exposure Tables
		3.2 Job Hazards Analysis Assessment
			3.2.1 Introduction
			3.2.2 Responsibility and Tailgate Meetings
			3.2.3 Hazards Assessment
				3.2.3.1 Purpose of Hazards Assessment
				3.2.3.2 Instructions and Forms for Job Hazard Analysis Assessment for PPE
				3.2.3.3 General Provisions for Performing Safety Inspections
				3.2.3.4 Inspection Preparation
				3.2.3.5 Hazard Classification
				3.2.3.6 Inspection Equipment
				3.2.3.7 Inspection Process
				3.2.3.8 Closeout Review
				3.2.3.9 Abatement Plan
			3.2.4 Hazard Assessment and PPE Checklists
			3.2.5 Bibliography
		3.3 Personal Protective Equipment
			3.3.1 Introduction
			3.3.2 General Provisions
			3.3.3 Requirements of a PPE Program
			3.3.4 Guidelines for PPE Selection
			3.3.5 Worker Training
			3.3.6 Eye and Face Protection
				3.3.6.1 Prescription Lenses
				3.3.6.2 Eye Protection for Exposed Workers
				3.3.6.3 Types of Protection
				3.3.6.4 Welding Operations
				3.3.6.5 Laser Operations
			3.3.7 Head Protection
				3.3.7.1 Types of Hard Hats
				3.3.7.2 Size and Care
			3.3.8 Foot and Leg Protection
				3.3.8.1 Special Purpose Shoes
				3.3.8.2 Protective Footwear Care
			3.3.9 Hand and Arm Protection
				3.3.9.1 Protective Gloves Types
				3.3.9.2 Fabric and Coated Fabric Gloves
				3.3.9.3 Chemical- and Liquid-Resistant Gloves
				3.3.9.4 Protective Gloves Care
			3.3.10 Protective Equipment for the Body
			3.3.11 Hearing Protection
			3.3.12 Respiratory Protection
				3.3.12.1 Definitions
				3.3.12.2 Establishing a Respiratory Protection Program
				3.3.12.3 Levels of Protection
				3.3.12.4 Rules for Breathing Air Quality and Use
			3.3.13 Bibliography
		3.4 First Aid and Resuscitation
			3.4.1 Introduction
			3.4.2 First Aid Assessments
			3.4.3 Elements of a First Aid Training Program
			3.4.4 Periodic Program Updates
			3.4.5 First Aiders
			3.4.6 First Aid Training and Certification
			3.4.7 First Aid for Electric Shock
			3.4.8 Skills Update
			3.4.9 First Aid Supplies
			3.4.10 Bibliography
		3.5 Fire Protection, Evacuation, First Responder and Emergency Planning
			3.5.1 Flammability Properties
				3.5.1.1 General Information
				3.5.1.2 Flammability Designation
			3.5.2 Ignition Temperature
			3.5.3 Flammability Limits
			3.5.4 Vapor Density
			3.5.5 Specific Gravity
			3.5.6 Water Solubility
			3.5.7 Responding to Fires
			3.5.8 Fire Fighting Agents
				3.5.8.1 Water
				3.5.8.2 Foam
				3.5.8.3 Alcohol-Resistant Foams
				3.5.8.4 High Expansion Foams
				3.5.8.5 Other Extinguishing Agents
				3.5.8.6 Carbon Dioxide
			3.5.9 Electrical Fire Prevention
			3.5.10 Firefighting Guidance
				3.5.10.1 Types
				3.5.10.2 Firefighting Agents and Extinguishers
				3.5.10.3 Vehicles
				3.5.10.4 Firefighting Gear
			3.5.11 Specialized Rescue Procedures
			3.5.12 First Responder to Electrical Fire Incidents
			3.5.13 Evacuation Planning
				3.5.13.1 Designated Roles and Responsibilities
				3.5.13.2 Preparation & Planning for Emergencies
				3.5.13.3 Evacuation Procedure
				3.5.13.4 General
				3.5.13.5 Template for Emergency Evacuation Plan
			3.5.14 Bibliography
		3.6 Excavations and Trenching
			3.6.1 Introduction
			3.6.2 Recommended Practices
			3.6.3 Safety Guidelines
			3.6.4 Excavation and Trenching Safety Program
				3.6.4.1 Introductory Notes
				3.6.4.2 Safety Coordinator
				3.6.4.3 Training and Duties of Program Participants
				3.6.4.4 Training and Duties of Workers
				3.6.4.5 Training and Duties of the Project Manager
				3.6.4.6 Contractor Awareness, Duties and Responsibilities
				3.6.4.7 Specific Excavation Requirements
				3.6.4.8 Protection of the Public
				3.6.4.9 Protection of Workers in Excavations
				3.6.4.10 Personal Protective Equipment
				3.6.4.11 Walkways and Guardrails
				3.6.4.12 Protection from Hazards Associated with Water Accumulation
				3.6.4.13 Stability of Adjacent Structures
				3.6.4.14 Protection of Employees from Falling Objects and Loose Rocks or Soil
				3.6.4.15 Inspection by the project manager
				3.6.4.16 Pre-Entry Checklist
			3.6.5 Requirements for Protective Systems
				3.6.5.1 Protection of Employees in Excavations
				3.6.5.2 Materials and Equipment
				3.6.5.3 Installation and Removal of Support
				3.6.5.4 Additional Requirements for Support Systems for Trench Excavations
				3.6.5.5 Sloping and Benching Systems
				3.6.5.6 Shield Systems
			3.6.6 Definitions
			3.6.7 Bibliography
		3.7 Confined Spaces
			3.7.1 Identifying Confined Spaces
			3.7.2 Identifying Confined Space Hazards
				3.7.2.1 Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres
				3.7.2.2 Flammable Atmospheres
				3.7.2.3 Toxic Atmospheres
				3.7.2.4 Mechanical and Physical Hazards
			3.7.3 Model Confined Space Entry Program
				3.7.3.1 Identifying All Confined Spaces
				3.7.3.2 Preventing Unauthorized Entry
				3.7.3.3 The Permit System
				3.7.3.4 Planning the Entry
				3.7.3.5 Conducting Pre-Entry Training
				3.7.3.6 Preparing the Confined Space for Entry
				3.7.3.7 Utilizing Safety Equipment
				3.7.3.8 Atmospheric Testing Procedures
				3.7.3.9 Confined Space Cleaning Procedures
				3.7.3.10 Rescue Procedures
			3.7.4 Personnel Responsibilities and Training
				3.7.4.1 Responsibilities of the Director of Environmental Health & Safety
				3.7.4.2 Responsibilities and Training Requirements of Supervisors or Their Designated Representatives
				3.7.4.3 Responsibilities and Training Requirements of Entry Supervisors
				3.7.4.4 Responsibilities and Training Requirements of Authorized Entrants
				3.7.4.5 Responsibilities and Training Requirements of Attendants
			3.7.5 Definitions
			3.7.6 Bibliography
	Chapter 4 Safe Use of Equipment
		4.1 Hand Tools and Workshop Machines
			4.1.1 Introduction
			4.1.2 What are the Hazards of Hand Tools?
			4.1.3 What are the Dangers of Power Tools?
			4.1.4 Guards
			4.1.5 Operating Controls and Switches
			4.1.6 Electric Tools
			4.1.7 Portable Abrasive Wheel Tools
			4.1.8 Pneumatic Tools
			4.1.9 Liquid Fuel Tools
			4.1.10 Powder-Actuated Tools
			4.1.11 Hydraulic Power Tools
			4.1.12 General Requirements of Safety in Workshops Policy
			4.1.13 Machinery Installation
			4.1.14 Machine Controls
			4.1.15 Machine Guards
			4.1.16 Service Installations
			4.1.17 Grinding and Polishing Machines
			4.1.18 Milling Machines
			4.1.19 Metal-Cutting Guillotines
			4.1.20 General Considerations
			4.1.21 Solvent Degreasing
			4.1.22 Bibliography
		4.2 Ladder Safety
			4.2.1 Introduction
			4.2.2 General Requirements
				4.2.2.1 Rules for All Ladder Types
				4.2.2.2 Rules for Specific Types of Ladder
			4.2.3 Ladder Hazards /Prevention Tips
			4.2.4 Ladder Selection
			4.2.5 Ladder Maintenance
				4.2.5.1 Using Extension Ladders
				4.2.5.2 Setting Up an Extension Ladder
				4.2.5.3 Climbing a Fixed Ladder
			4.2.6 Ladder Inspections
			4.2.7 Bibliography
		4.3 Forklift Safety
			4.3.1 Introduction
			4.3.2 Pre-Qualifications for Forklift Operators
			4.3.3 Safe Operating Procedures
			4.3.4 Changing and Charging Storage Batteries
			4.3.5 Operations
			4.3.6 Traveling
			4.3.7 Loading
			4.3.8 Fueling
			4.3.9 Maintenance
			4.3.10 Training
			4.3.11 Refresher Training and Evaluation
			4.3.12 Bibliography
		4.4 Crane Operation Safety
			4.4.1 Lifting Principles
			4.4.2 Operational Considerations
			4.4.3 Construction Requirements
			4.4.4 Inspection Guidelines
				4.4.4.1 Preinspection
				4.4.4.2 Crane Setup
				4.4.4.3 Electrical Hazards
				4.4.4.4 Load Charts
				4.4.4.5 Safe Operating Precautions
				4.4.4.6 Inspection Types
				4.4.4.7 Starting the Inspection
				4.4.4.8 Specific Inspection Items and References
			4.4.5 Definitions
			4.4.6 Bibliography
		4.5 Scaffolds and Other Work Platforms
			4.5.1 Introduction
			4.5.2 Scaffold Safety
				4.5.2.1 General Safety Guidelines
				4.5.2.2 Safe Usage of Non-mobile Welded Frame Scaffolding
				4.5.2.3 Maximum Weight
				4.5.2.4 Other Specs
				4.5.2.5 Don'ts for Safe Scaffold Use
				4.5.2.6 Scaffold Guardrails
				4.5.2.7 Scaffold Safety Checklist
				4.5.2.8 Fall Protection
				4.5.2.9 Additional Guidelines
			4.5.3 Bibliography
		4.6 Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
			4.6.1 Introduction
			4.6.2 Identification
			4.6.3 Handling & Use
			4.6.4 Transportation of Cylinders
			4.6.5 Bibliography
		4.7 Drum Handling Safety
			4.7.1 Introduction
			4.7.2 Types of Drums
				4.7.2.1 Determine Drum Type
				4.7.2.2 Identifying Drum Contents
			4.7.3 Drum Inspection, Handling, and Staging Inspection
			4.7.4 Leaking, Open, and Deteriorated Drums
				4.7.4.1 Bung wrench
				4.7.4.2 Staging
				4.7.4.3 Hazards Associated with Handling Drums
			4.7.5 Preventing Back Injuries
		4.8 Safe Welding Practices
			4.8.1 Identifying Safe Welding Practices
			4.8.2 Definitions
			4.8.3 General Provisions
				4.8.3.1 Training
				4.8.3.2 Types of Welding
				4.8.3.3 Welding Hazards
				4.8.3.4 Safe Work Practice
				4.8.3.5 Electrical Hazards
				4.8.3.6 Fire and Explosions
				4.8.3.7 Toxic gases and Fumes
				4.8.3.8 Hot Work Permits
			4.8.4 Inspections
			4.8.5 Ventilation Guidelines for Welding Operations
	Chapter 5 Electrical Safety
		5.1 Electric Shock and Lockout/Tagout
			5.1.1 Introduction
			5.1.2 Fuses
			5.1.3 GFCIs
			5.1.4 Electrical Shock
			5.1.5 Feedback Electrical Energy
			5.1.6 Universal Precautions
			5.1.7 Training Programs
			5.1.8 Protective Equipment and Work Practices
			5.1.9 Detection of Low Voltage
			5.1.10 Lockout/Tagout
			5.1.11 Lockout Devices
			5.1.12 Specific Procedures for Logout/Tagout
			5.1.13 Bibliography
		5.2 Linemen General Safety Practices
			5.2.1 Introduction
			5.2.2 Scope
			5.2.3 Shock Hazard Analysis
			5.2.4 Regulatory Issues
			5.2.5 Standard Requirements
			5.2.6 Test Equipment Industry Recognized Good Practices
			5.2.7 Flash Hazard Analysis
			5.2.8 Blast Hazard Analysis
			5.2.9 Selection of Electrical Protective Equipment
			5.2.10 Exterior Safety Rules
				5.2.10.1 Rope
				5.2.10.2 Body Belts and Safety Straps
				5.2.10.3 Rubber Protective Equipment
				5.2.10.4 Gaffs
				5.2.10.5 Climbers
				5.2.10.6 Hot-Line Tools
				5.2.10.7 Vehicles
			5.2.11 Exterior Working Practices
				5.2.11.1 Excavation
				5.2.11.2 Manholes
				5.2.11.3 Potheads
				5.2.11.4 Poles
				5.2.11.5 Climbing
			5.2.12 Electrical Safety Rules
				5.2.12.1 Voltage Low
				5.2.12.3 Circuits
			5.2.13 Transformers and Circuit Breakers
			5.2.14 Wire Markers
			5.2.15 Adequacy and Effectiveness of the Training Program
			5.2.16 Bibliography
		5.3 Electrical Safe Work Practices Plan
			5.3.1 Introduction
			5.3.2 Training
			5.3.3 Qualified Person
			5.3.4 Safe Work Practices
				5.3.4.1 Lock-out/Tag-out and Safety Related Work Practices
				5.3.4.2 Portable Equipment
				5.3.4.3 Personal Protective Equipment
				5.3.4.4 Conductive Materials and Equipment
				5.3.4.5 De-energized Parts
				5.3.4.6 Energized Parts
				5.3.4.7 Illumination
				5.3.4.8 Portable Ladders
				5.3.4.9 Reclosing Circuits
				5.3.4.10 Vehicular and Mechanical Equipment Near Overhead Power Lines
				5.3.4.11 Electrical Equipment/Machinery
				5.3.4.12 GFCI Protection
				5.3.4.13 Wiring
		5.4 Electrical Equipment
			5.4.1 Introduction
			5.4.2 Electrical Safety Facts
			5.4.3 Vehicular and Mechanical Equipment
			5.4.4 Use of Equipment
			5.4.5 Test Equipment
			5.4.6 Bibliography
		5.5 Safe Work Practices Near Power Lines
			5.5.1 Introduction
			5.5.2 Plan Ahead
			5.5.3 Safe Work Practices
				5.5.3.1 General
				5.5.3.2 Safe Operations of Cranes
				5.5.3.3 Procedures to Follow If Contact Occurs
				5.5.3.4 Recommended Practices
				5.5.3.5 Tree Spraying
				5.5.3.6 Electrical Emergencies
				5.5.3.7 Training Workers
			5.5.4 Bibliography
		5.6 Functional Safety for Electric Power Transmission
			5.6.1 Introduction
			5.6.2 Structure of Electric Power Systems
			5.6.3 Hazards in Electric Power Systems
				5.6.3.1 Hazards In Substations
				5.6.3.2 Security
			5.6.4 Assuring Functional Safety
			5.6.5 Recommended References
	Chapter 6 Worker Safety Rules
		6.1 Critical Incident Stress
			6.1.1 Responding to Emergency Events
			6.1.2 Critical Incident Stress Management
			6.1.3 Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
		6.2 Toxic Industrial Chemicals
		6.3 Electrical Protective Devices
			6.3.1 Design Requirements
			6.3.2 Manufacture and Markings
			6.3.3 Electrical Requirements
			6.3.4 Workmanship and Finish
			6.3.5 In-Service Care and Use
		6.4 Hand Protection
		6.5 Hazard Assessment and Personal Protective Equipment Selection
			6.5.1 General Guidance
			6.5.2 Head Protection
			6.5.3 Foot Protection
			6.5.4 Hand Protection
			6.5.5 Cleaning and Maintenance
		6.6 Sanitation
			6.6.1 Definitions
			6.6.2 Housekeeping
			6.6.3 Waste Disposal
			6.6.4 Water Supply
				6.6.4.1 Potable Water
				6.6.4.2 Non-potable Water
			6.6.5 Toilet Facilities
			6.6.6 Construction of Toilet Rooms
			6.6.7 Washing Facilities
			6.6.8 Showers
			6.6.9 Change Rooms
			6.6.10 Clothes Drying Facilities
			6.6.11 Consumption of Food and Beverages
			6.6.12 Waste Disposal Containers
			6.6.13 Sanitary Storage
			6.6.14 Food Handling
		6.7 Safety Color Code for Marking Physical Hazards
		6.8 Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs and Tags
			6.8.1 General
			6.8.2 Classification of Signs
			6.8.3 Sign Design
				6.8.3.1 Danger Signs
				6.8.3.2 Caution Signs
				6.8.3.3 Sign Wordings
			6.8.4 Biological Hazard Signs
			6.8.5 Accident Prevention Tags
		6.9 Permits for Confined Spaces
			6.9.1 Definitions
			6.9.2 General Comments and Requirements
			6.9.3 Oxygen Content, Flammable Gases and Vapors, and Potential Toxic Air Contaminants
			6.9.4 Permit Space Program
				6.9.4.1 General Details
				6.9.4.2 Attendant
				6.9.4.3 The Permit System
				6.9.4.4 Entry Permit
				6.9.4.5 Training
				6.9.4.6 Duties of Authorized Entrants
				6.9.4.7 Duties of Attendants
				6.9.4.8 Duties of Entry Supervisors
				6.9.4.9 Rescue and Emergency Services
				6.9.4.10 Employee Participation
				6.9.4.11 Procedures for Atmospheric Testing
		6.10 Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout)
			6.10.1 General Information
			6.10.2 Definitions
			6.10.3 Elements of Lockout/Tagout
			6.10.4 Full Employee Protection
			6.10.5 Energy Control Procedure
			6.10.6 Protective Materials and Hardware
			6.10.7 Inspection
			6.10.8 Training and Communication
			6.10.9 Energy Isolation
			6.10.10 Group Lockout or Tagout
		6.11 Medical Services and First Aid
		6.12 Fire Protection
			6.12.1 Fire Brigades
			6.12.2 Fire Fighting Equipment
		6.13 Handling Materials
		6.14 Slings
		6.15 Bibliography
	Chapter 7 Recordkeeping, Training and Inspections, Accident Investigation and Reporting
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 Safety Recordkeeping Practices and Protocols
			7.2.1 Illnesses
			7.2.2 Injuries
			7.2.3 Deaths
			7.2.4 What's Not Recordable
			7.2.5 How to Analyze Injury and Illness Records
			7.2.6 Ensuring Accuracy in Recordkeeping
		7.3 Safety Training and Recordkeeping
			7.3.1 Type of Training
			7.3.2 Recordkeeping
		7.4 OHSAS 18001 (Occupation Health and Safety Assessment Series)
		7.5. Bibliography
	Chapter 8 Risk and Vulnerability Assessments
		8.1 Risk Management
			8.1.1 General
			8.1.2 Steps to Risk Assessment
				8.1.2.1 Step 1: Identify the Hazards
				8.1.2.2 Step 2: Decide Who Might Be Harmed and How
				8.1.2.3 Step 3: Evaluate the Risks and Decide on Precautions
				8.1.2.4 Step 4: Record Your Findings and Implement Them
				8.1.2.5 Step 5: Review Your Risk Assessment and Update If Necessary
				8.1.2.6 Sensible Risk Management Tips
			8.1.3 Safety Risk Management Committees
		8.2 Crisis Management
		8.3 Vulnerability Assessments
			8.3.1 Network Architecture
			8.3.2 Threat Environment
			8.3.3 Penetration Testing
			8.3.4 Physical Security
			8.3.5 Physical Asset Analysis
			8.3.6 Operations Security
			8.3.7 Policies and Procedures
			8.3.8 Impact Analysis
			8.3.9 Infrastructure Interdependencies
			8.3.10 Risk Characterization
			8.3.11 Post-Assessment
	Appendix A Chemical Exposure Tables
	Appendix B Forms
	Index
                        

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