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Page 1

P R O P E R T Y TA B L E S A N D
C H A R T S ( S I U N I T S )

APPENDIX

1

841

Table A–1 Molar mass, gas constant, and ideal-gas specific heats of some
substances 842

Table A–2 Boiling and freezing point properties 843
Table A–3 Properties of solid metals 844–846
Table A–4 Properties of solid nonmetals 847
Table A–5 Properties of building materials 848–849
Table A–6 Properties of insulating materials 850
Table A–7 Properties of common foods 851–852
Table A–8 Properties of miscellaneous materials 853
Table A–9 Properties of saturated water 854
Table A–10 Properties of saturated refrigerant–134a 855
Table A–11 Properties of saturated ammonia 856
Table A–12 Properties of saturated propane 857
Table A–13 Properties of liquids 858
Table A–14 Properties of liquid metals 859
Table A–15 Properties of air at 1 atm pressure 860
Table A–16 Properties of gases at 1 atm pressure 861–862
Table A–17 Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude 863
Table A–18 Emissivities of surfaces 864–865
Table A–19 Solar radiative properties of materials 866
Figure A–20 The Moody chart for friction factor for fully developed flow

in circular pipes 867

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Page 2

APPENDIX 1
842

TABLE A–1

Molar mass, gas constant, and ideal-gas specific heats of some substances

Specific Heat Data at 25�C
Molar Mass Gas Constant

Substance M, kg/kmol R, kJ/kg · K* cp, kJ/kg · K cv, kJ/kg · K k � cp/cv

Air 28.97 0.2870 1.005 0.7180 1.400
Ammonia, NH3 17.03 0.4882 2.093 1.605 1.304
Argon, Ar 39.95 0.2081 0.5203 0.3122 1.667
Bromine, Br2 159.81 0.05202 0.2253 0.1732 1.300
Isobutane, C4H10 58.12 0.1430 1.663 1.520 1.094
n-Butane, C4H10 58.12 0.1430 1.694 1.551 1.092
Carbon dioxide, CO2 44.01 0.1889 0.8439 0.6550 1.288
Carbon monoxide, CO 28.01 0.2968 1.039 0.7417 1.400
Chlorine, Cl2 70.905 0.1173 0.4781 0.3608 1.325
Chlorodifluoromethane (R-22), CHCIF2 86.47 0.09615 0.6496 0.5535 1.174
Ethane, C2H6 30.070 0.2765 1.744 1.468 1.188
Ethylene, C2H4 28.054 0.2964 1.527 1.231 1.241
Fluorine, F2 38.00 0.2187 0.8237 0.6050 1.362
Helium, He 4.003 2.077 5.193 3.116 1.667
n-Heptane, C7H16 100.20 0.08297 1.649 1.566 1.053
n-Hexane, C6H14 86.18 0.09647 1.654 1.558 1.062
Hydrogen, H2 2.016 4.124 14.30 10.18 1.405
Krypton, Kr 83.80 0.09921 0.2480 0.1488 1.667
Methane, CH4 16.04 0.5182 2.226 1.708 1.303
Neon, Ne 20.183 0.4119 1.030 0.6180 1.667
Nitrogen, N2 28.01 0.2968 1.040 0.7429 1.400
Nitric oxide, NO 30.006 0.2771 0.9992 0.7221 1.384
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 46.006 0.1889 0.8060 0.6171 1.306
Oxygen, O2 32.00 0.2598 0.9180 0.6582 1.395
n-Pentane, C5H12 72.15 0.1152 1.664 1.549 1.074
Propane, C3H8 44.097 0.1885 1.669 1.480 1.127
Propylene, C3H6 42.08 0.1976 1.531 1.333 1.148
Steam, H2O 18.015 0.4615 1.865 1.403 1.329
Sulfur dioxide, SO2 64.06 0.1298 0.6228 0.4930 1.263
Tetrachloromethane, CCI4 153.82 0.05405 0.5415 0.4875 1.111
Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), C2H2F4 102.03 0.08149 0.8334 0.7519 1.108
Trifluoroethane (R-143a), C2H3F3 84.04 0.09893 0.9291 0.8302 1.119
Xenon, Xe 131.30 0.06332 0.1583 0.09499 1.667

*The unit kJ/kg · K is equivalent to kPa · m3/kg · K. The gas constant is calculated from R � RU /M, where RU � 8.31447 kJ/kmol · K is the universal gas
constant and M is the molar mass.

Source: Specific heat values are obtained primarily from the property routines prepared by The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
Gaithersburg, MD.

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Page 14

TABLE A–9

Properties of saturated water

APPENDIX 1
854

Volume
Enthalpy Specific Thermal Prandtl Expansion

Saturation Density of Heat Conductivity Dynamic Viscosity Number Coefficient

Temp.
Pressure r, kg/m3 Vaporization cp, J/kg · K k, W/m · k m, kg/m · s Pr b, 1/K

T, �C Psat, kPa Liquid Vapor hfg, kJ/kg Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid

0.01 0.6113 999.8 0.0048 2501 4217 1854 0.561 0.0171 1.792 � 10�3 0.922 � 10�5 13.5 1.00 �0.068 � 10�3

5 0.8721 999.9 0.0068 2490 4205 1857 0.571 0.0173 1.519 � 10�3 0.934 � 10�5 11.2 1.00 0.015 � 10�3

10 1.2276 999.7 0.0094 2478 4194 1862 0.580 0.0176 1.307 � 10�3 0.946 � 10�5 9.45 1.00 0.733 � 10�3

15 1.7051 999.1 0.0128 2466 4185 1863 0.589 0.0179 1.138 � 10�3 0.959 � 10�5 8.09 1.00 0.138 � 10�3

20 2.339 998.0 0.0173 2454 4182 1867 0.598 0.0182 1.002 � 10�3 0.973 � 10�5 7.01 1.00 0.195 � 10�3

25 3.169 997.0 0.0231 2442 4180 1870 0.607 0.0186 0.891 � 10�3 0.987 � 10�5 6.14 1.00 0.247 � 10�3

30 4.246 996.0 0.0304 2431 4178 1875 0.615 0.0189 0.798 � 10�3 1.001 � 10�5 5.42 1.00 0.294 � 10�3

35 5.628 994.0 0.0397 2419 4178 1880 0.623 0.0192 0.720 � 10�3 1.016 � 10�5 4.83 1.00 0.337 � 10�3

40 7.384 992.1 0.0512 2407 4179 1885 0.631 0.0196 0.653 � 10�3 1.031 � 10�5 4.32 1.00 0.377 � 10�3

45 9.593 990.1 0.0655 2395 4180 1892 0.637 0.0200 0.596 � 10�3 1.046 � 10�5 3.91 1.00 0.415 � 10�3

50 12.35 988.1 0.0831 2383 4181 1900 0.644 0.0204 0.547 � 10�3 1.062 � 10�5 3.55 1.00 0.451 � 10�3

55 15.76 985.2 0.1045 2371 4183 1908 0.649 0.0208 0.504 � 10�3 1.077 � 10�5 3.25 1.00 0.484 � 10�3

60 19.94 983.3 0.1304 2359 4185 1916 0.654 0.0212 0.467 � 10�3 1.093 � 10�5 2.99 1.00 0.517 � 10�3

65 25.03 980.4 0.1614 2346 4187 1926 0.659 0.0216 0.433 � 10�3 1.110 � 10�5 2.75 1.00 0.548 � 10�3

70 31.19 977.5 0.1983 2334 4190 1936 0.663 0.0221 0.404 � 10�3 1.126 � 10�5 2.55 1.00 0.578 � 10�3

75 38.58 974.7 0.2421 2321 4193 1948 0.667 0.0225 0.378 � 10�3 1.142 � 10�5 2.38 1.00 0.607 � 10�3

80 47.39 971.8 0.2935 2309 4197 1962 0.670 0.0230 0.355 � 10�3 1.159 � 10�5 2.22 1.00 0.653 � 10�3

85 57.83 968.1 0.3536 2296 4201 1977 0.673 0.0235 0.333 � 10�3 1.176 � 10�5 2.08 1.00 0.670 � 10�3

90 70.14 965.3 0.4235 2283 4206 1993 0.675 0.0240 0.315 � 10�3 1.193 � 10�5 1.96 1.00 0.702 � 10�3

95 84.55 961.5 0.5045 2270 4212 2010 0.677 0.0246 0.297 � 10�3 1.210 � 10�5 1.85 1.00 0.716 � 10�3

100 101.33 957.9 0.5978 2257 4217 2029 0.679 0.0251 0.282 � 10�3 1.227 � 10�5 1.75 1.00 0.750 � 10�3

110 143.27 950.6 0.8263 2230 4229 2071 0.682 0.0262 0.255 � 10�3 1.261 � 10�5 1.58 1.00 0.798 � 10�3

120 198.53 943.4 1.121 2203 4244 2120 0.683 0.0275 0.232 � 10�3 1.296 � 10�5 1.44 1.00 0.858 � 10�3

130 270.1 934.6 1.496 2174 4263 2177 0.684 0.0288 0.213 � 10�3 1.330 � 10�5 1.33 1.01 0.913 � 10�3

140 361.3 921.7 1.965 2145 4286 2244 0.683 0.0301 0.197 � 10�3 1.365 � 10�5 1.24 1.02 0.970 � 10�3

150 475.8 916.6 2.546 2114 4311 2314 0.682 0.0316 0.183 � 10�3 1.399 � 10�5 1.16 1.02 1.025 � 10�3

160 617.8 907.4 3.256 2083 4340 2420 0.680 0.0331 0.170 � 10�3 1.434 � 10�5 1.09 1.05 1.145 � 10�3

170 791.7 897.7 4.119 2050 4370 2490 0.677 0.0347 0.160 � 10�3 1.468 � 10�5 1.03 1.05 1.178 � 10�3

180 1,002.1 887.3 5.153 2015 4410 2590 0.673 0.0364 0.150 � 10�3 1.502 � 10�5 0.983 1.07 1.210 � 10�3

190 1,254.4 876.4 6.388 1979 4460 2710 0.669 0.0382 0.142 � 10�3 1.537 � 10�5 0.947 1.09 1.280 � 10�3

200 1,553.8 864.3 7.852 1941 4500 2840 0.663 0.0401 0.134 � 10�3 1.571 � 10�5 0.910 1.11 1.350 � 10�3

220 2,318 840.3 11.60 1859 4610 3110 0.650 0.0442 0.122 � 10�3 1.641 � 10�5 0.865 1.15 1.520 � 10�3

240 3,344 813.7 16.73 1767 4760 3520 0.632 0.0487 0.111 � 10�3 1.712 � 10�5 0.836 1.24 1.720 � 10�3

260 4,688 783.7 23.69 1663 4970 4070 0.609 0.0540 0.102 � 10�3 1.788 � 10�5 0.832 1.35 2.000 � 10�3

280 6,412 750.8 33.15 1544 5280 4835 0.581 0.0605 0.094 � 10�3 1.870 � 10�5 0.854 1.49 2.380 � 10�3

300 8,581 713.8 46.15 1405 5750 5980 0.548 0.0695 0.086 � 10�3 1.965 � 10�5 0.902 1.69 2.950 � 10�3

320 11,274 667.1 64.57 1239 6540 7900 0.509 0.0836 0.078 � 10�3 2.084 � 10�5 1.00 1.97
340 14,586 610.5 92.62 1028 8240 11,870 0.469 0.110 0.070 � 10�3 2.255 � 10�5 1.23 2.43
360 18,651 528.3 144.0 720 14,690 25,800 0.427 0.178 0.060 � 10�3 2.571 � 10�5 2.06 3.73
374.14 22,090 317.0 317.0 0 — — — — 0.043 � 10�3 4.313 � 10�5

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n � m/r and a � k/rcp � n/Pr. The temperatures 0.01�C, 100�C,
and 374.14�C are the triple-, boiling-, and critical-point temperatures of water, respectively. The properties listed above (except the vapor density) can be used at
any pressure with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.

Note 2: The unit kJ/kg · �C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg · K, and the unit W/m · �C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m · K.

Source: Viscosity and thermal conductivity data are from J. V. Sengers and J. T. R. Watson, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 15 (1986),
pp. 1291–1322. Other data are obtained from various sources or calculated.

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Page 15

TABLE A–10

Properties of saturated refrigerant-134a

Volume
Enthalpy

Specific Thermal Prandtl Expansion
Saturation

Density of Heat Conductivity Dynamic Viscosity Number Coefficient Surface

Temp. Pressure r, kg/m
3

Vaporization cp, J/kg · K k, W/m · K m, kg/m · s Pr b, l/K Tension,
T, �C P, kPa Liquid Vapor hfg, kJ/kg Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid Vapor Liquid N/m

�40 51.2 1418 2.773 225.9 1254 748.6 0.1101 0.00811 4.878 � 10�4 2.550 � 10�6 5.558 0.235 0.00205 0.01760
�35 66.2 1403 3.524 222.7 1264 764.1 0.1084 0.00862 4.509 � 10�4 3.003 � 10�6 5.257 0.266 0.00209 0.01682
�30 84.4 1389 4.429 219.5 1273 780.2 0.1066 0.00913 4.178 � 10�4 3.504 � 10�6 4.992 0.299 0.00215 0.01604
�25 106.5 1374 5.509 216.3 1283 797.2 0.1047 0.00963 3.882 � 10�4 4.054 � 10�6 4.757 0.335 0.00220 0.01527
�20 132.8 1359 6.787 213.0 1294 814.9 0.1028 0.01013 3.614 � 10�4 4.651 � 10�6 4.548 0.374 0.00227 0.01451
�15 164.0 1343 8.288 209.5 1306 833.5 0.1009 0.01063 3.371 � 10�4 5.295 � 10�6 4.363 0.415 0.00233 0.01376
�10 200.7 1327 10.04 206.0 1318 853.1 0.0989 0.01112 3.150 � 10�4 5.982 � 10�6 4.198 0.459 0.00241 0.01302
�5 243.5 1311 12.07 202.4 1330 873.8 0.0968 0.01161 2.947 � 10�4 6.709 � 10�6 4.051 0.505 0.00249 0.01229

0 293.0 1295 14.42 198.7 1344 895.6 0.0947 0.01210 2.761 � 10�4 7.471 � 10�6 3.919 0.553 0.00258 0.01156
5 349.9 1278 17.12 194.8 1358 918.7 0.0925 0.01259 2.589 � 10�4 8.264 � 10�6 3.802 0.603 0.00269 0.01084

10 414.9 1261 20.22 190.8 1374 943.2 0.0903 0.01308 2.430 � 10�4 9.081 � 10�6 3.697 0.655 0.00280 0.01014
15 488.7 1244 23.75 186.6 1390 969.4 0.0880 0.01357 2.281 � 10�4 9.915 � 10�6 3.604 0.708 0.00293 0.00944
20 572.1 1226 27.77 182.3 1408 997.6 0.0856 0.01406 2.142 � 10�4 1.075 � 10�5 3.521 0.763 0.00307 0.00876
25 665.8 1207 32.34 177.8 1427 1028 0.0833 0.01456 2.012 � 10�4 1.160 � 10�5 3.448 0.819 0.00324 0.00808
30 770.6 1188 37.53 173.1 1448 1061 0.0808 0.01507 1.888 � 10�4 1.244 � 10�5 3.383 0.877 0.00342 0.00742
35 887.5 1168 43.41 168.2 1471 1098 0.0783 0.01558 1.772 � 10�4 1.327 � 10�5 3.328 0.935 0.00364 0.00677
40 1017.1 1147 50.08 163.0 1498 1138 0.0757 0.01610 1.660 � 10�4 1.408 � 10�5 3.285 0.995 0.00390 0.00613
45 1160.5 1125 57.66 157.6 1529 1184 0.0731 0.01664 1.554 � 10�4 1.486 � 10�5 3.253 1.058 0.00420 0.00550
50 1318.6 1102 66.27 151.8 1566 1237 0.0704 0.01720 1.453 � 10�4 1.562 � 10�5 3.231 1.123 0.00455 0.00489
55 1492.3 1078 76.11 145.7 1608 1298 0.0676 0.01777 1.355 � 10�4 1.634 � 10�5 3.223 1.193 0.00500 0.00429
60 1682.8 1053 87.38 139.1 1659 1372 0.0647 0.01838 1.260 � 10�4 1.704 � 10�5 3.229 1.272 0.00554 0.00372
65 1891.0 1026 100.4 132.1 1722 1462 0.0618 0.01902 1.167 � 10�4 1.771 � 10�5 3.255 1.362 0.00624 0.00315
70 2118.2 996.2 115.6 124.4 1801 1577 0.0587 0.01972 1.077 � 10�4 1.839 � 10�5 3.307 1.471 0.00716 0.00261
75 2365.8 964 133.6 115.9 1907 1731 0.0555 0.02048 9.891 � 10�5 1.908 � 10�5 3.400 1.612 0.00843 0.00209
80 2635.2 928.2 155.3 106.4 2056 1948 0.0521 0.02133 9.011 � 10�5 1.982 � 10�5 3.558 1.810 0.01031 0.00160
85 2928.2 887.1 182.3 95.4 2287 2281 0.0484 0.02233 8.124 � 10�5 2.071 � 10�5 3.837 2.116 0.01336 0.00114
90 3246.9 837.7 217.8 82.2 2701 2865 0.0444 0.02357 7.203 � 10�5 2.187 � 10�5 4.385 2.658 0.01911 0.00071
95 3594.1 772.5 269.3 64.9 3675 4144 0.0396 0.02544 6.190 � 10�5 2.370 � 10�5 5.746 3.862 0.03343 0.00033

100 3975.1 651.7 376.3 33.9 7959 8785 0.0322 0.02989 4.765 � 10�5 2.833 � 10�5 11.77 8.326 0.10047 0.00004

Note 1: Kinematic viscosity n and thermal diffusivity a can be calculated from their definitions, n � m/r and a � k/rcp � n/Pr. The properties listed here (except
the vapor density) can be used at any pressures with negligible error except at temperatures near the critical-point value.

Note 2: The unit kJ/kg · �C for specific heat is equivalent to kJ/kg · K, and the unit W/m · �C for thermal conductivity is equivalent to W/m · K.

Source: Data generated from the EES software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. Original sources: R. Tillner-Roth and H. D. Baehr, “An International
Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for Temperatures from 170 K to 455 K and Pressures up to
70 MPa,” J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994; M.J. Assael, N. K. Dalaouti, A. A. Griva, and J. H. Dymond, “Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of
Halogenated Methane and Ethane Refrigerants,” IJR, Vol. 22, pp. 525–535, 1999; NIST REFPROP 6 program (M. O. McLinden, S. A. Klein, E. W. Lemmon,
and A. P. Peskin, Physical and Chemical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80303, 1995).

APPENDIX 1
855

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