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Page 282

gascar) are also effective against drug-resistant malaria.395

The tree resists water well and has been used in dugout ca-
noes and coffins so much that it is now among the most en-
dangered species in the country. For it to be used as a
source of the drug commercially, the tree would have to be
farmed or the drug produced in tissue culture. Notice that
its structure has no relation to that of artemisinin.
Enediynes were not anticipated to be drugs, but calicheam-
icin, dynemicin, and others, are effective against cancer.396

This has spawned a great deal of activity in the synthesis of
enediynes and in studies of the their cyclization to aromatic
structures.397

Azadirachtin from Azadirachta indica(the neem tree) is
a potent insect antifeedant398 that promises to replace
harmful insecticides.399 Polygodial (from Polygonum hy-
dropiper) is another insect antifeedant.400 Before it can be
used widely, a way will have to be found to stabilize it
against environmental degradation. Balanol from fungi is a
potent inhibitor of protein kinase C enzymes and may lead
to new drugs for diseases involving these.401 The triterpene
betulinic acid, which is derived from the bark of the white
birch tree, is active against tumors.402 Cycloartenol triter-
penes from Cimicifuga foetida(used in traditional Chinese
medicines) are anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.403

Bryostatin from a marine bryozoan is an anticancer
agent.404 Efforts are being made to farm the bryozoan to
produce the drug. Camptothecin is a natural quinoline
derivative that is used to treat ovarian cancer.405 Compactin

is effective in lowering cholesterol levels in the blood.406

Discodermolides are marine natural products that exhibit
immunosuppresive activity.407

Epibatidine (9.48) is a potent analgesic from the
Ecuadorian poison frog Epipedobates tricolor.408 Al-
though the compound itself is too toxic to use as a drug, an
analogue developed by Abbott Laboratories (9.49) is less
toxic, nonaddictive, and as effective as morphine.409

Epothilones A and B are promising anticancer agents
that bind to microtubules in the cell in the same way that
paclitaxel (Taxol) does and are more potent.410 Paclitaxel
was obtained first from the bark of the Pacific yew (Taxus
brevifolia).411 Widespread extraction of the compound
from this source could have wiped out the species. Fortu-
nately, it can now be extracted from the needles of more
common yews or produced in tissue culture. (See Sec II.C
on tissue culture.) Forskolin is a diterpene, from the roots
of Coleus forskohlii, that lowers blood pressure.412 Him-
bacine, from an Australian pine tree, offers a potential
treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.413 Combretastatin, from
the bark of the African bush willow, Combretum caffrum,
cuts the flow of blood to tumors, causing 95% of the can-
cer cells to die in 24 h, but does not harm healthy blood
vessels.414

Important drugs have been derived from two plants
common in the woodlands of the eastern United States.
One is etoposide (an anticancer drug) based on the
podophyllotoxin found in Podophyllum peltatum.415 The
second is sanguinarine (from Sanguinaria canadensis),
which is used for treatment of periodontal disease. A com-
mon fence lizard of the western United States, Sceloporus
occidentalis, has something in the blood that kills the bac-
teria responsible for Lyme disease.416

Biocatalysis and Biodiversity 269

Figure 9.2 (Continued)

9.48

9.49

Page 283

270 Chapter 9

Figure 9.2 (Continued)

Page 563

550 Index

Tires, burned for energy, 421
fires of, 421
longer-wearing, 420
use of powdered, 421
use of used, 420

Tissue culture, 274
Titanium-containing catalysts, use in oxidations, 88
Titanium dioxide, use in disinfection of water, 52

use as a pigment, 65
use in self-cleaning coatings, 56

Titanium silicalite, 87, 146, 157
Tortillas, pollution from cooking, 448
Toxic chemicals, made on demand, rather than stored, 527

inventories of, 508Ð509
Toxic oil syndrome, 5
Toxic Release Inventory, 11Ð12
Toxicity, of chlorine-containing compounds, 48

of heavy metal ions, 65
trade-offs, 41
testing, variables in, 6

Toxins, natural, 2
Trade associations, slow rate of ÒgreeningÓ, 523
Transgenic animals, 266

plants, 65Ð267, 346
resistance to herbicides, 266, 347

to insects, 266, 346
for producing antibodies, 266
questions about use, 346Ð347

Transportation, energy for, 445
Trap crops, 327
Traps for insects, electrical, 326
Trehalose, 248

to stabilize enzymes, 248
Trialkoxysilanes, 244

monomers containing, 108
Tricarboxylic acids, separation of, 181
Triflates, metal, 139
Triphase catalysis, 119
Triphosgene, 27
Tris(pentafluorophenyl)boron, 142
Tryptophan, deaths from impure, 5
Tunstated zirconia, 138
Tungsten oxide, use in windows, 455

Ultrafiltration, 183
Ultrasonic energy, in extruder for the devulcanization of rubber,

421
for preparation of block copolymers, 467
use in reactions, 466
use in welding, 228

Ultraviolet screening agents, 394
United Nations, international conferences of, 522
Urban sprawl, alternatives to, 446
Ureas, inclusion compounds from, 177
Urea peroxide, 77, 85Ð86
Ureas, use in preparation of isocyaneates, 32

Vaccines, research on, 492
Vegetable oils, use as lubricants, 370, 399
Vinyl esters, use in enzymatic esterifications, 252Ð253
Vitamin E, 396
Vitamin K, preparation without chromium, 84Ð85

Wacker Reaction, 120, 125, 159
Waste, combustion of, 49

exchanges for, 15
heat, from power plants, 445

recovery by metal hydrides, 458
from industries, 503
minimization of, 13Ð19, 409, 426

reasons for not being done, 503
reuse of, 15
salts containing chlorine, 56
shipped abroad, 507

Water, acceleration of reactions in, 215
bottled, 429

quality of, 430
for cleavage of asters and ethers, 214
disinfection of, by polymeric reagents, 118
for destruction of organic compounds under supercritical

conditions, 214
ligands soluble in, 216
pollution of, 12
as a reaction medium, 214Ð220

Wave energy, 463
Websites for environmental data preface
Weak spots, in clothing and equipment, 389, 402
Wear, 397

reduction by use of hard materials, 397Ð398
Wearing out, reasons, 389
Weeds control

by allelopathy, 340
by crop rotation, 339
by intercropping, 339
invasive, 266
by light with delta-aminolevulinic acid, 341
by mechanical and cultural methods, 339
by mulching, 340
by predators and pathogens, 340
ÒWheat BoardÓ, 379

Windows, electrochromic, 454Ð455
insulated with silica aerogels, 455
low-emissivity coatings for, 454
photochromic, 454

Windpower, 462
Wood preservation, 70

with copper chromium arsenate, 343
with terpenes, 343

Wool, shrink-proofing without the use of chlorine, 51
World Bank, 522
World Trade Organization, 522

Xenon lamps, 454
Xylanases, use in making paper, 51, 261

Page 564

Index 551

Xylitol, 243
p-Xylene, 148, 158

Zeolites, 143–153
use as acids, 147
use as bases, 147
use as catalysts for acylation and alkylation, 147–149

for polymerization, 152
use in detergents, 147
films of used in separations, 187
use in ion exchange, 152
membranes, 153
metal clusters and complexes in, 146
names of, 145
use in oxidations, 82–83, 88, 92
photochemical reactions in, 151
plugging of pores in, 142
polymerization in, 152

pore sizes of, 144–145
preparation of, 145

microwave use in, 467
modification after, 146
removal of templates from, 145
templates for, 145–146

reactions in, 148–152
use in separations, 147

of butanes, 153
of dioxins, mercury and sulfur dioxide, 152

stability of, 146
stabilization of metal complexes by, 146
uses for, 147

Zero risk, 3
Zinc, 65–66, 68–69, 75–76
Zinc phosphate coatings to prevent corosion, 401
Zirconia, sulfated, 138
Zirconia, tungstated, 138

[Zeolites]

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