Download Module 2 Pharmacognosy PDF

TitleModule 2 Pharmacognosy
Tags Wax Carbohydrates Polysaccharide Starch
File Size2.3 MB
Total Pages61
Document Text Contents
Page 2

INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY
Pharmacognosy – knowledge of drugs and pharmaceuticals | Greek: pharmakon (drugs) and gnosis (knowledge)


BRIEF HISTORY
Babylonians – made clay models of man
Egyptians – very apt in the practice of embalming
Greeks

x Pedanios Dioscorides – De materia medica libre cinque (five volumes), 600 plants
x (Rome) Galen – described the method of preparing formulas containing plant and animal drugs and the term

”Galenical pharmacy” originated (Cold cream – Galen’s cerate)
Germans

x C.A. Seydler – coined the term pharmacognosy in his dissertation in 1815 (title: Anaclectica pharmacognosthica)
x Fluckiger –most comprehensive definition of pharmacognosy : “simultaneous application of various scientific

disciplines with the object of acquiring knowledge of drugs from every point of view”
x J.A. Schmidt – Lerbuch der Materia medica


Pharmacognosy – “an applied science that deals with the biologic, biochemical and economic features of natural drugs and
their constituents that originate in the plant and animal kingdom”

General Process of Extraction

x Removes substances that can be dissolved by the solvent/menstruum
x The undissolved portion of the drug is known as the marc
x Product of extraction process: Percolate/Extractive


Crude Drugs – undergone only collection and drying
Natural Substances – have not had changes made in their molecular structure as found in nature
Derivatives/ Extractives – chief constituents obtained by extraction
Geographic source & Habitat – region in which the plant or animal yielding the drug grows
Indigenous – growing in their native countries
Naturalized – growing in foreign land


PREPARATION OF DRUGS FOR THE COMMERCIAL MARKET
1. Collection – (small scale) collection time: part of the plant that constitutes the drug is highest in its content of AI

2. Harvesting – (large scale)

x Mechanical devices : pickers, mowers, binders, swath, steel
x Manual – for potent constituents


3. Drying (Air Drying and Artificial Air Drying)
• remove moisture • fixes the constituents
• prevent molding • facilitate grinding and milling
• prevent action of bacteria • prevent environmental hydrolysis

4. Garbling – final stage; removal of extraneous matter (other parts of the plant, dirt, added adulterants)

5. Packaging, Storage and Preservation

x To avoid insect attacks:
a. SIMPLEST METHOD: Expose the drug to 65°C
b. Fumigation with methyl bromide
c. Add adrop of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride



Collection time
x Pectin – citrus fruits

Unripe fruits - protopectin
Just ripe - pectin
Overripe - pectic acid


x Marijuana
Young leaves - cannabidiol
Mature leaves - cannabinol (THC)

Appropriate Solvents:
1. Fats - Hexane
2. Resins - Alcohol
3. Chlorophyll - Acetone
4. Chrysarobin - Hot benzene

Michaela Bemdt

Michaela Bemdt

Page 61

ALKALOIDS

PYRIDINE-PIPERIDINE

1 Areca (Areca Nut, Betel Nut)
2 Lobelia (Indian Tobacco)
3 Nicotine


TROPANE/SOLANACEOUS

1 Belladona (Deadly Nightshade Leaf)
2 Stramonium (Jimson Weed, Jamestown Weed)
3 Cocaine (Coca)


QUINOLINE: Cinchona (Peruvian Bark)
IMIDAZOLE: Pilocarpine (pilocarpus , Jaborandi)

ISOQUINOLINE

1 Ipecac
2 Hydrastis (Golden Seal)
3 Sanguinaria (Blood Root)
4 Opium (opium Or Gum Opium)


INDOLE

1 Rauwolfia Serpentina
2 Catharanthus (Vinca)
3 Nux Vomica
4 Physostigma (Physostigma, Calabar Bean, Ordeal Bean)
5 Ergot (rye Ergot, Secale Cornutum)


STEROIDAL

1 Veratum Viride (American Or Green Hellebore)
2 White Hellebore (European Hellebore)


ALKALOIDAL AMINES

1 Ephedrine (Ephedra, Mahuang)
2 Colchicine (Colchium Seed)
3 Khat (abyssinian Tea)
4 Peyote (mescal Buttons)


PURINE BASES

1 Caffeine (1,3,7 Trimethylxanthine)
2 Theophylline (Thea , Tea , 1,3 Dimethylxanthine)
3 Theobromine (3,7 Dimethyl Xanthine)

QUIN-Chona

Si IMILDA walay Piloc

I-S-O-H

Im so Ca-PERN najud

Ca-PERN kaayo mag INDOLE (ENROLL)

KHA - YOTE ; EPECOL

PEYOTE sige ko ug MESCAL ni KHAT kay ABYSSINIAN

siya ni MAHUANG kay ge arthritis siya

Similer Documents