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Table of Contents
                            Cover
Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete
Title
Copyright
Dedication
Contents
Preface to the first edition
Preface to the second edition
Acknowledgements
Notation
Acronyms and abbreviations
Part 1 Reinforced
concrete
	1 Introduction
		1.1 Historical notes
		1.2 Design requirements
		1.3 Loads and load combinations
			1.3.1 Strength design
			1.3.2 Serviceability design
			1.3.3 Application
		1.4 Concrete cover and reinforcement spacing
			1.4.1 Cover
			1.4.2 Spacing
	2 Design properties of materials
		2.1 Concrete
			2.1.1 Characteristic strengths
			2.1.2 Standard strength grades
			2.1.3 Initial modulus and other constants
		2.2 Steel
		2.3 Unit weight
	3 Ultimate strength analysis and design for bending
		3.1 Definitions
			3.1.1 Analysis
			3.1.2 Design
			3.1.3 Ultimate strength method
		3.2 Ultimate strength theory
			3.2.1 Basic assumptions
			3.2.2 Actual and equivalent stress blocks
		3.3 Ultimate strength of a singly reinforced rectangular section
			3.3.1 Tension, compression and balanced failure
			3.3.2 Balanced steel ratio
			3.3.3 Moment equation for tension failure (under-reinforced sections)
			3.3.4 Moment equation for compression failure (over-reinforced sections)
			3.3.5 Effective moment capacity
			3.3.6 Illustrative example for ultimate strength of a singly reinforced rectangular section
			3.3.7 Spread of reinforcement
				Example: Computing Mu from a rigorous analysis
		3.4 Design of singly reinforced rectangular sections
			3.4.1 Free design
			3.4.2 Restricted design
			3.4.3 Design example
		3.5 Doubly reinforced rectangular sections
			3.5.1 Criteria for yielding of Asc at failure
			3.5.2 Analysis formulas
				Case 1: Asc yields at failure
				Case 2: Asc does not yield at failure
			3.5.3 Illustrative examples
			3.5.4 Other cases
				Balanced failure conditions
				Both Ast and Asc do not yield
				Ast does not yield but Asc does
			3.5.5 Summary
		3.6 Design of doubly reinforced sections
			3.6.1 Design procedure
			3.6.2 Illustrative example
		3.7 T-beams and other flanged sections
			3.7.1 General remarks
			3.7.2 Effective flange width
			3.7.3 Criteria for T-beams
			3.7.4 Analysis
			3.7.5 Design procedure
			3.7.6 Doubly reinforced T-sections
			3.7.7 Illustrative examples
				Example 1: Analysis of singly reinforced T-sections
				Example 2: Design of singly reinforced T-sections
		3.8 Nonstandard sections
			3.8.1 Analysis
			3.8.2 Illustrative example
		3.9 Continuous beams
		3.10 Detailing and cover
		3.11 Problems
	4 Deflection of beams and crack control
		4.1 General remarks
		4.2 Deflection formulas, effective span and deflection limits
			4.2.1 Formulas
			4.2.2 Effective span
			4.2.3 Limits
		4.3 Short-term (immediate) deflection
			4.3.1 Effects of cracking
			4.3.2 Branson’s effective moment of inertia
			4.3.3 Load combinations
			4.3.4 Illustrative example
			4.3.5 Cantilever and continuous beams
		4.4 Long-term deflection
			4.4.1 General remarks
			4.4.2 The multiplier method
			4.4.3 Illustrative example
		4.5 Simplified procedure
			4.5.1 Minimum effective depth approach
			4.5.2 ACI code recommendation
		4.6 Total deflection under repeated loading
			4.6.1 Formulas
			4.6.2 Illustrative example
		4.7 Crack control
			4.7.1 General remarks
			4.7.2 Standard provisions
			4.7.3 Crack-width formulas and comparison of performances
		4.8 Problems
	5 Ultimate strength design for shear
		5.1 Transverse shear stress and shear failure
			5.1.1 Principal stresses
			5.1.2 Typical crack patterns and failure modes
			5.1.3 Mechanism of shear resistance
			5.1.4 Shear reinforcement
		5.2 Transverse shear design
			5.2.1 Definitions
			5.2.2 Design shear force and the capacity reduction factor
			5.2.3 Maximum capacity
			5.2.4 Shear strength of beams without shear reinforcement
			5.2.5 Shear strength checks and minimum reinforcement
				Case A
				Case B
				Case C
				Case D
			5.2.6 Design of shear reinforcement
				Vertical stirrups or ties
				Inclined stirrups or ties
			5.2.7 Detailing
			5.2.8 Design example
		5.3 Longitudinal shear
			5.3.1 Shear planes
			5.3.2 Design shear stress
			5.3.3 Shear stress capacity
			5.3.4 Shear plane reinforcement and detailing
			5.3.5 Design example
		5.4 Problems
	6 Ultimate strength design for torsion
		6.1 Introduction
			6.1.1 Origin and nature of torsion
			6.1.2 Torsional reinforcement
			6.1.3 Transverse reinforcement area and capacity reduction factor
		6.2 Maximum torsion
		6.3 Checks for reinforcement requirements
		6.4 Design for torsional reinforcement
			6.4.1 Design formula
			6.4.2 Design procedure
				In the tensile zone
				In the compressive zone
			6.4.3 Detailing
			6.4.4 Design example
		6.5 Problems
	7 Bond and stress development
		7.1 Introduction
			7.1.1 General remarks
			7.1.2 Anchorage bond and development length
			7.1.3 Mechanism of bond resistance
			7.1.4 Effects of bar position
		7.2 Design formulas for stress development
			7.2.1 Basic and refined development lengths for a bar in tension
				Deformed bars
				Plain bars
			7.2.2 Standard hooks and cog
			7.2.3 Deformed and plain bars in compression
				Deformed bars
				Plain bars
			7.2.4 Bundled bars
		7.3 Splicing of reinforcement
			7.3.1 Bars in tension
			7.3.2 Bars in compression
			7.3.3 Bundled bars
			7.3.4 Mesh in tension
		7.4 Illustrative examples
			7.4.1 Example 1
			7.4.2 Example 2
		7.5 Problems
	8 Slabs
		8.1 Introduction
			8.1.1 One-way slabs
			8.1.2 Two-way slabs
			8.1.3 Effects of concentrated load
			8.1.4 Moment redistribution
		8.2 One-way slabs
			8.2.1 Simplified method of analysis
			8.2.2 Reinforcement requirements
			8.2.3 Deflection check
			8.2.4 Design example
		8.3 Two-way slabs supported on four sides
			8.3.1 Simplified method of analysis
				Positive moments
				Negative moments
				Slab shear to be carried by supporting beams or walls
			8.3.2 Reinforcement requirements for bending
				Positive moments
				Negative moments over continuous supports
				Negative moments over discontinuous supports
			8.3.3 Corner reinforcement
				Exterior corner B
				Exterior corners A and C
			8.3.4 Deflection check
			8.3.5 Crack control
			8.3.6 Design example
		8.4 Multispan two-way slabs
			8.4.1 General remarks
			8.4.2 Design strips
			8.4.3 Limitations of the simplified method of analysis
			8.4.4 Total moment and its distribution
			8.4.5 Punching shear
			8.4.6 Reinforcement requirements
			8.4.7 Shrinkage and temperature steel
		8.5 The idealised frame approach
			8.5.1 The idealised frame
			8.5.2 Structural analysis
			8.5.3 Distribution of moments
		8.6 Punching shear design
			8.6.1 Geometry and definitions
			8.6.2 Drop panel and shear head
			8.6.3 The basic strength
			8.6.4 The ultimate strength
			8.6.5 Minimum effective slab thickness
			8.6.6 Design of torsion strips
			8.6.7 Design of spandrel beams
			8.6.8 Detailing of reinforcement
			8.6.9 Summary
			8.6.10 Illustrative example
			8.6.11 Semi-empirical approach and layered finite element method
		8.7 Slab design for multistorey flat plate structures
			8.7.1 Details and idealisation of a three-storey building
			8.7.2 Loading details
			8.7.3 Load combinations
			8.7.4 Material and other specifications
			8.7.5 Structural analysis and moment envelopes
			8.7.6 Design strips and design moments
				Design strips
				Design moments
			8.7.7 Design of column and middle strips
				The column strip
				Half middle strip 1 (HMS1)
				Half middle strip 2 (HMS2)
			8.7.8 Serviceability check – total deflection
			8.7.9 Reinforcement detailing and layout
			8.7.10 Comments
		8.8 Problems
	9 Columns
		9.1 Introduction
		9.2 Centrally loaded columns
		9.3 Columns in uniaxial bending
			9.3.1 Strength formulas
			9.3.2 Tension, compression, decompression and balanced failure
			9.3.3 Interaction diagram
				Illustrative example
			9.3.4 Approximate analysis of columns failing in compression
				Illustrative example
			9.3.5 Strengths between decompression and squash points
		9.4 Analysis of columns with an arbitrary cross-section
			9.4.1 Iterative approach
			9.4.2 Illustrative example of iterative approach
			9.4.3 Semi-graphical method
				Step 2
				Step 3
				Step 4
			9.4.4 Illustrative example of semi-graphical method
		9.5 Capacity reduction factor
		9.6 Preliminary design procedure
			9.6.1 Design steps
			9.6.2 Illustrative example
		9.7 Short column requirements
		9.8 Moment magnifiers for slender columns
			9.8.1 Braced columns
			9.8.2 Unbraced columns
		9.9 Biaxial bending effects
		9.10 Reinforcement requirements
			9.10.1 Limitations and bundled bars
			9.10.2 Lateral restraint and core confinement
				Columns where fc'=.50 MPa
				Columns where fc'>50 MPa
			9.10.3 Recommendations
		9.11 Comments
		9.12 Problems
	10 Walls
		10.1 Introduction
		10.2 Standard provisions
		10.3 Walls under vertical loading only
			10.3.1 Simplified method
			10.3.2 American Concrete Institute code provision
			10.3.3 New design formula
			10.3.4 Alternative column design method
		10.4 Walls subjected to in-plane horizontal forces
			10.4.1 General requirements
			10.4.2 Design strength in shear
			10.4.3 American Concrete Institute recommendations
		10.5 Reinforcement requirements
		10.6 Illustrative examples
			10.6.1 Example 1 – load-bearing wall
			10.6.2 Example 2 – tilt-up panel
			10.6.3 Example 3 – the new strength formula
			10.6.4 Example 4 – design shear strength
		10.7 Problems
	11 Footings, pile caps and retaining walls
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 Wall footings
			11.2.1 General remarks
			11.2.2 Eccentric loading
				Condition 1
				Condition 2
			11.2.3 Concentric loading
			11.2.4 Asymmetrical footings
			11.2.5 Design example
				Numerical example
		11.3 Column footings
			11.3.1 General remarks
			11.3.2 Centrally loaded square footings
			11.3.3 Eccentric loading
				Illustrative example
			11.3.4 Multiple columns
			11.3.5 Biaxial bending
			11.3.6 Reinforcement requirements
			11.3.7 Design example
		11.4 Pile caps
			11.4.1 Concentric column loading
				Illustrative example
			11.4.2 Biaxial bending
		11.5 Retaining walls
			11.5.1 General remarks
			11.5.2 Stability considerations
			11.5.3 Active earth pressure
			11.5.4 Design subsoil pressures
			11.5.5 Design moments and shear forces
			11.5.6 Load combinations
			11.5.7 Illustrative example
		11.6 Problems
Part 2 Prestressed concrete
	12 Introduction to prestressed concrete
		12.1 General remarks
		12.2 Non-engineering examples of prestressing
			12.2.1 Wooden barrel
			12.2.2 Stack of books
		12.3 Principle of superposition
		12.4 Types of prestressing
			12.4.1 Pretensioning
			12.4.2 Post-tensioning
		12.5 Partial prestressing
		12.6 Tensile strength of tendons and cables
		12.7 Australian Standard precast prestressed concrete bridge girder sections
	13 Critical stress state analysis of beams
		13.1 Assumptions
		13.2 Notation
		13.3 Loss of prestress
			13.3.1 Standard provisions
			13.3.2 Examples of prestress loss due to elastic shortening of concrete
				Example 1: Axially pretensioned member
				Example 2: Post-tensioned member
				Example 3: Post-tension loss and compensation
				Example 4: Loss due to bending of the member
			13.3.3 Effective prestress coefficient
			13.3.4 Stress equations at transfer and after loss
				Example 1
				Example 2
				Example 3
		13.4 Permissible stresses c and ct
		13.5 Maximum and minimum external moments
		13.6 Case A and case B prestressing
			13.6.1 Fundamentals
			13.6.2 Applying Case A and Case B
		13.7 Critical stress state (CSS) equations
			13.7.1 Case A prestressing
			13.7.2 Case B prestressing
			13.7.3 Summary of Case A and Case B equations
				Case A
				Case B
		13.8 Application of CSS equations
		13.9 Problems
	14 Critical stress state design of beams
		14.1 Design considerations
		14.2 Formulas and procedures – case A
			14.2.1 Elastic section moduli
			14.2.2 Magnel’s plot for Case A
			14.2.3 Design steps
		14.3 Formulas and procedures – case B
			14.3.1 Elastic section moduli
			14.3.2 Magnel’s plot for Case B
			14.3.3 Design steps
		14.4 Design examples
			14.4.1 Simply supported beam
			14.4.2 Simple beam with overhang
			14.4.3 Cantilever beam
		14.5 Problems
	15 Ultimate strength analysis of beams
		15.1 General remarks
		15.2 Cracking moment (Mcr)
			15.2.1 Formula
			15.2.2 Illustrative example
		15.3 Ultimate moment (M.u) for partially prestressed sections
			15.3.1 General equations
			15.3.2 Sections with bonded tendons
			15.3.3 Sections with unbonded tendons
		15.4 Ductility requirements – reduced ultimate moment equations
		15.5 Design procedure
			15.5.1 Recommended steps
			15.5.2 Illustrative example
		15.6 Nonrectangular sections
			15.6.1 Ultimate moment equations
			15.6.2 Illustrative example
		15.7 Problems
	16 End blocks for prestressing anchorages
		16.1 General remarks
		16.2 Pretensioned beams
		16.3 Post-tensioned beams
			16.3.1 Bursting stress
			16.3.2 Spalling stress
			16.3.3 Bearing stress
			16.3.4 End blocks
		16.4 End-block design
			16.4.1 Geometry
			16.4.2 Symmetrical prisms and design bursting forces
			16.4.3 Design spalling force
			16.4.4 Design for bearing stress
		16.5 Reinforcement and distribution
		16.6 Crack control
Appendix A Elastic neutral axis
Appendix B Critical shear perimeter
Appendix C Strut-and-tie modelling of concrete structures
	C.1 General remarks
	C.2 Fundamentals
	C.3 Struts, ties and nodes
	C.4 Common types of strut-and-tie models
	C.5 Developments
	C.6 Specifications in AS 3600
		C.6.1 Concrete struts
		C.6.2 Steel ties
		C.6.3 Nodes
		C.6.4 Additional specifications
		C.6.5 Illustrative example
Appendix D Australian Standard precast prestressed concrete bridge girder sections
References
Index
                        

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