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                            CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY:
TETRABIBLOS
	OR THE QUADRIPARTITE MATHEMATICAL TREATISE
	
	FOUR BOOKS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE STARS
	TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK PARAPHRASE OF PROCLUS By J. M. ASHMAND
London, Davis and Dickson
[1822]
This version courtesy of http://www.classicalastrologer.com/
Forword
It is fair to say that Claudius Ptolemy made the single greatest contribution to the transmission and preservation of astrological and astronomical knowledge of the Classical and Ancient world. No study of Traditional Astrology can ignore the importance and influence of this encyclopaedic work. It speaks not only of the stars, but also of a distinct cosmology that prevailed until the 18th century.  Ironically, it is easy to jeer at someone who thinks the earth is the cosmic centre and refers to it as the sublunary sphere. However, our current knowledge tells us that the Universe is infinite, as far as we know. It seems to me that in an infinite universe, any given point must be the centre. Sometimes scientists are not so scientific. The fact is, it still applies to us for our purposes.
It practical terms, the Moon does have the most immediate effect on the Earth which is, after all, our point of reference. She turns the tides,  influences the vegetative growth and menstrual cycles. In fact, she influences the weather itself.
What has become known as the Ptolemaic Universe, consisted of concentric circles emanating from Earth to the eighth sphere of the Fixed Stars,  also known as the Empyrean. This cosmology is as spiritual as it is physical. It is a decideley moral cosmology. No apologies are made for political incorrectness.
Ptolemy was first and foremost an anthologist. This knowledge came to him from Egypt, Greece, Chaldea, Babylonia and beyond. More to the point, he was in the enviable position of being in Alexandria during the peak of its eminence. Alexandria was in intellectual and spiritual foment. Ptolemy is clearly drawing from a wide range of sources in Tetrabiblos. His articulated cosmology has become known by his name. Whatever your thoughts on the status of Ptolemy, he remains required reading for anyone interested in the history of the celestial arts. His influence on Renaissance astrologers was profound in and of  itself.
Editorial Policy:
As with any text, there are always arguments regarding which translation is definitive. This 1822 edition has previously been difficult to find in a practical, readable, digital format. The style is  at times eccentric; but for anyone interested in the subject, this will be quickly forgiven.
Typographical errors were legion in the original, numbering in the hundreds. These errors have been corrected where there been no doubt as to the intended word. Archaisms have been left intact. Some grammatical errors, such as placing a period, rather a comma, when the next word is not capitalized have been edited for sense, but not content.  Missing words have been added in brackets to indicate they  are not in the original. I have made no attempt to maintain the original pagination in this format.
Whenever the intended meaning was unclear I have left the sentence as is. One example of this is the use of the word “lang” which may mean either ‘long’ or lung’ in reference to Saturn and illness. This is left to the discretion of the reader. In every other respect the text is unchanged.
This edition and format was primarily intended for my on-line students of the Traditional Astrology  Course  To that end, it serves well. You are invited to distribute this e-book freely, with the understanding that the text, including credits, remain intact. Check for updated versions on my website from time to time.
Victoria, British Columbia, February 2006
Prof. Peter J. Clark,
http://www.classicalastrologer.com/
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
BOOK THE FIRST
	CHAPTER I
		PROEM
			BOOK I.
				1. Introduction.
				1. That Knowledge by Astronomical Means is Attainable, and How Far.
				4. Of the Power of the Planets.
				5. Of Beneficent and Maleficent Planets.
				6. Of Masculine and Feminine Planets.
				7. Of Diurnal and Nocturnal Planets.
				8. Of the Power of the Aspects to the Sun.
				9. Of the Power of the Fixed Stars.
				10. Of the Effect of the Seasons and of the Four Angles.
				11. Of Solstitial, Equinoctial, Solid, and Bicorporeal Signs.
				12. Of Masculine and Feminine Signs.
				13. Of the Aspects of the Signs.
				14. Of Commanding and Obeying Signs.
				15. Of Signs which Behold each other and Signs of Equal Power.
				16. Of Disjunct Signs.
				17. Of the Houses of the Several Planets.
				18. Of the Triangles.
				19. Of Exaltations.
				20. Of the Disposition of Terms.
				21. According to the Chaldaeans.
				22. 0f Places and Degrees.
				23. Of Faces, Chariots, and the Like.
				24. Of Applications and Separations and the Other Powers.
			BOOK II.
				1. lntroduction.
				2. Of the Characteristics of the lnhabitants of the General Climes.
				3. Of the Familiarities between Countries and the Triplicities and Stars.
				4. Method of Making Particular Predictions.
				5. 0f the Examination of the Countries Affected.
				6. Of the Time of the Predicted Events.
				7. Of the Class of those Affected.
				8. Of the Quality of the Predicted Event.
				9. Of the Colours of Eclipses, Comets, and the Like.
				10. Concerning the New Moon of the Year.
				11. Of the Nature of the Signs, Part by Part, and their Effect upon the Weather.
				12. Of the Investigation of Weather in Detail.
				13. Of the Significance of Atmospheric Signs.
			BOOK III.
				1. Introduction.
				2. Of the Degree of the Horoscopic Point.
				3. The Subdivision of the Science of Nativities.
				4. Of Parents.
				5. Of Brothers and Sisters.
				6. Of Males and Females.
				7. Of Twins.
				8. Of Monsters.
				9. Of Children that are not Reared.
				10. Of Length of Life.
				11. Of Bodily Form and Temperament.
				12. Of Bodily Injuries and Diseases.
				13: Of the Quality of the Soul.
				14. Of Diseases of the Soul.
			BOOK IV.
				1. lntroduction.
				2. Of Material Fortune..
				3. Of the Fortune of Dignity.
				4. 0f the Quality of Action,
				5. Of Marriage.
				6. Of Children.
				7. Of Friends and Enemies.
				With regard to friendly dispositions and the opposite, the deeper and more lasting of which we call sympathies and hostilities, and the lesser and occasional acquaintances and quarrels, our investigation will follow this course. In inquiries regarding matters of importance we must observe the places in both nativities which have the greatest authority, that is, those of the sun, the moon, the horoscope, and the Lot of Fortune; for if they chance to fall in the same signs of the zodiac, or if they exchange places, either all or most of them, and particularly if the horoscopic regions are about 17° apart, they bring about secure and indissoluble sympathy, unbroken by any quarrel. However, if they are in disjunct signs or opposite signs, they produce the deepest enmities and lasting contentions. If they chance to be situated in neither of these ways, but merely in signs which bear an aspect to one another, if they are in trine or in sextile, they make the sympathies less, and in quartile, the antipathies less. Thus there come about occasional spells of silence and of disparaging talk in friendships, whenever the maleficent planets are passing through these configurations, and truces and reconciliations in enmities at the ingress of the beneficent planets upon them. For there are three classes of friendship and enmity, since men are so disposed to one another either by preference or by need or through pleasure and pain; when all or most of the aforesaid places have familiarity with each other, the friendship is compounded of all three kinds, even as the enmity is, when they are dissociated. But when the places of the luminaries only are in familiarity, the friendship will result from choice, which is the best and surest kind, and in the case of enmity the worst and faithless; similarly, when the places of the Lots of Fortune are familiar, through need; and when the places of the horoscopes are familiar, through pleasure or pain.    One must observe, of the places in aspect, their elevations and how the planets regard them. To the nativity in which an elevation of the configuration occurs, whether it is the same sign as the succedant place or the one closest to it, must be assigned the greater authority and direction over friendship or enmity; and to those nativities in which the regard of the planets is more favourable for benevolence and power, we must allot the greater benefit from the friendship and the greater success in the enmity.    In the occasional acquaintances and oppositions that arise from time to time between individuals, we must pay attention to the movements of the planets in each of the nativities, that is, at what times the prorogations of the planets of one nativity reach the places of the other. For partial friendships and enmities take place in these times, prevailing at the shortest up to the completion of the prorogation, and at the longest until same other of the approaching planets reaches the place. Now if Saturn and Jupiter approach each other's places they produce friendships through introductions, agriculture, or inheritance; Saturn and Mars make intentional quarrels and schemings; Saturn and Venus, associations through kinsfolk, which, how ever, quickly cool; Saturn and Mercury make marriage and partnerships for the sake of giving and receiving, trade, or the mysteries. Jupiter and Mars cause associations through dignities or the management of property; Jupiter and Venus friendships through women, religions rites, oracles, or the like; Jupiter and Mercury associations for learned discussion, based upon philosophic inclination. Mars and Venus cause associations through love, adultery, or illegitimate relations, but they are unsure and flourish only briefly; Mars and Mercury produce enmities, noisy disputes, and lawsuits which arise through business or poisonings. Venus and Mercury give associations based upon same art or domain of the Muses, or an introduction by letter or through women.    Now then we must determine the degree of the intensity or relaxation of acquaintances and oppositions from the relation between the places which they assume and the four principal and most authoritative places, for if they are upon the angles or the Lots of Fortune or the houses of the luminaries, their portent is the more conspicuous, but if they are removed from them, they are insignificant. Whether the association will be more injurious or more beneficial to the associates is to be determined from the character for good or bad of the planets which regard the places named.    The special topic or account of slaves and the sympathy or antipathy of their masters to them is elucidated from the hause of the Evil Daemon and from the natural suitability of the planets which regard this place both in the nativity itself and in their ingresses and oppositions to it, particularly when the lords of the sign are either in harmonious aspect to the principal places of the nativity, or the opposite.
				8. Of Foreign Travel.
				The topic of foreign travel receives treatment by observing the position of the luminaries to the angles, both of them, but particularly the moon. For when the moon is setting or declining from the angles, she portends journeys abroad or changes of place. Mars too sometimes has a similar force, either when he is setting or when he himself also has declined from mid-heaven, when he is in opposition or quartile to the luminaries. If the Lot of Fortune also falls among the signe that cause travel, the subjects spend their whole lives abroad and will have all their personal relations and business there. If beneficent planets regard the aforesaid places or succeed them, their activities abroad will be honourable and profitable and their return quick and unimpeded; but if the maleficent planets regard them, their journeys will be laborious, injurious, and dangerous, and the return difficult, although in every case the mixture of influences is taken into consideration, determined by the dominance of the planets that bear an aspect to these same places, as we explained at first.    In general, it happens that, if the luminaries fall in the lower parts of the eastern quadrants, the travel is to the eastern and southern parts of the world, but if in the western quadrants or in the occident itself, to the north and the west; and if the zodiacal signs which caused the travel chance to be those of a single figure, either themselves or the planets that
				9. Of the Quality of Death.
				10. Of the Division of Times.
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY:

TETRABIBLOS


OR THE QUADRIPARTITE MATHEMATICAL
TREATISE



FOUR BOOKS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE STARS

TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK PARAPHRASE OF
PROCLUS By J. M. ASHMAND

London, Davis and Dickson

[1822]



This version courtesy of http://www.classicalastrologer.com/

http://www.classicalastrologer.com/

Page 2

Forword

It is fair to say that Claudius Ptolemy made the single greatest
contribution to the transmission and preservation of astrological and
astronomical knowledge of the Classical and Ancient world. No study of
Traditional Astrology can ignore the importance and influence of this
encyclopaedic work. It speaks not only of the stars, but also of a distinct
cosmology that prevailed until the 18th century. Ironically, it is easy to jeer
at someone who thinks the earth is the cosmic centre and refers to it as
the sublunary sphere. However, our current knowledge tells us that the
Universe is infinite, as far as we know. It seems to me that in an infinite
universe, any given point must be the centre. Sometimes scientists are not
so scientific. The fact is, it still applies to us for our purposes.

It practical terms, the Moon does have the most immediate effect on the
Earth which is, after all, our point of reference. She turns the tides,
influences the vegetative growth and menstrual cycles. In fact, she
influences the weather itself.

What has become known as the Ptolemaic Universe, consisted of
concentric circles emanating from Earth to the eighth sphere of the Fixed
Stars, also known as the Empyrean. This cosmology is as spiritual as it is
physical. It is a decideley moral cosmology. No apologies are made for
political incorrectness.

Ptolemy was first and foremost an anthologist. This knowledge came to
him from Egypt, Greece, Chaldea, Babylonia and beyond. More to the
point, he was in the enviable position of being in Alexandria during the
peak of its eminence. Alexandria was in intellectual and spiritual foment.
Ptolemy is clearly drawing from a wide range of sources in Tetrabiblos.
His articulated cosmology has become known by his name. Whatever
your thoughts on the status of Ptolemy, he remains required reading for
anyone interested in the history of the celestial arts. His influence on
Renaissance astrologers was profound in and of itself.

Editorial Policy:

As with any text, there are always arguments regarding which translation
is definitive. This 1822 edition has previously been difficult to find in a

Page 58

portion is stifling and pestilential, its middle part temperate, and its
following portion wet and destructive. Its northern parts are unstable and
fiery, its southern parts moist.


The sign of Virgo as a whole is moist and marked by thunder-storms; but,
taken part by part, its leading portion is rather warm and destructive, its
middle temperate, and its following part watery. Its northern parts are
windy and its southern parts temperate.


The sign of Libra as a whole is changeable and variable; but, taken part by
part, its leading and middle portions are temperate and its following
portion watery. Its northern parts are windy and its southern moist and
pestilential.


The sign of Scorpio as a whole is marked by thunder and fire, but, taken
part by part, its leading portion is snowy, its middle temperate, and its
following portion causes earthquakes. Its northern parts are hot and its
southern moist.


The sign of Sagittarius as a whole is windy; but, taken part by part, its
leading portion is wet, its middle temperate, and its following part fiery.
Its northern parts are windy, its southern moist and changeable.


The sign of Capricorn as a whole is moist; but, taken part by part, its
leading portion is marked by hot weather and is destructive, its middle
temperate, and its following part raises rain-storms. Its northern and
southern portions are wet and destructive.


The sign of Aquarius as a whole is cold and watery ; but, taken part by
part, its leading portion is moist, its middle temperate, its following part
windy. Its northern portion brings hot weather and its southern clouds.


The sign of Pisces as a whole is cold and windy ; but, taken part by part,
its leading portion is temperate, its middle moist, and its following
portion hot. Its northern parts are windy and its southern watery.



12. Of the Investigation of Weather in Detail.

Page 59

Now that these facts have been stated in introduction, the method of
dealing with the significations in detail involves the following procedure.
For One method is that which is more generally conceived, with relation
to the quarters, which will demand, as we have said, that we observe the
new moons or full moons which most nearly precede the solstitial and
equinoctial signs, and that, as the degree of the new moon or of the full
moon may fall in each latitude investigated, we dispose the angles as in a
nativity. It will then be necessary to determine the rulers of the place of
the new moon or full moon and of the angle that follows it, after the
fashion explained by us in the preceding sections dealing with eclipses,
and thus to judge of the general situation from the special nature of the
quarters, and determine the question of degree of intensification and
relaxation from the nature of the ruling planets, their qualities, and the
kinds of weather which they produce.


The second mode of procedure is based on the month. In this it will be
necessary for us to examine in the same way the new moons or full moons
that take place, in the several signs, observing only this, that, if a new
moon occurs nearest to the solstitial or equinoctial sign just past, we
should use the new moons which take place as far as the next quadrant,
and in the case of a full moon the full moons. It will be needful similarly
that we observe the angles and the rulers of both the places, and especially
the nearest appearances of the planets, and their applications and
recessions, the peculiar properties of the planets and of their places, and
the winds which are aroused both by the planets themselves and by the
parts of the signe in which they chance to be; still further, to what wind
the latitude of the moon is inclined through the obliquity of the ecliptic.
From all these facts, by means of the principle of prevalence, we may
predict the general conditions of weather and the winds of the months.


The third step is to observe the even more minutely detailed indications of
relaxation and intensification. This observation is based upon the
configurations of the sun and the moon successively, not merely the new
moons and full moons, but also the half moons, in which case the change
signified generally has its beginning three days before, and sometimes
three days after, the moon's progress matches that of the sun. It is based
also upon their aspects to the planets, when they are at each of the
positions of this kind, or likewise others, such as trine and sextile. For it is
in accordance with the nature of these that the special quality of the
change is apprehended, in harmony with the natural affinities of the
attending planets and of the signs of the zodiac for the ambient and the
winds.

Page 115

nature of the predicted event is made excessive and unalloyed, whether it
incline to the good or to the bad; all the more so if they govern the species
of the cause not only because they are chronocrators, but also because
they ruled it originally in the nativity. The subjects are unfortunate or
fortunate in all respects at once, whenever either all or most of the
prorogations are found in one and the same place, or if these are different,
whenever all or most of the occourses occurring at the same times are
similarly fortunate or unfortunate. The character of the investigation of
the times, then, is of this fashion, by the style which agrees with the
natural procedures.


Conclusion according to Parisinus 2425:




At this point, however, the method of attacking, in particular cases, the
problem of the quality of temporal predictions, with a complete account
of the results, which is a complicated matter difficult of explanation,
must, in accordance with our original programme, be left to the
astrologer's good judgement of the matter of temperaments, for thereby he
is able correctly to accommodate to specific instances the effective force of
the stars general nature. Now since the topic of nativities has been
summarily reviewed, it would be well to bring this procedure also to a
fitting close.





Conclusion according to MADProc.Cam.:




We shall, however, omit adding at this point a detailed account of the
kinds of predicted events that happen at the times, on account of the plan
which I stated at the outset, namely that the effective power which the
planets exercise in general situations can be made to apply similarly and
consistently in particular cases also, if the cause furnished by the
astrologer and the cause arising from the mixture are combined with due
skill.

Page 116

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