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TitleTextbook of Personalized Medicine
Author
TagsMedical
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Dedication
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
About the Author
Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Abbreviations
Chapter 1: Basic Aspects
	Definition of Personalized Medicine
	History of Medical Concepts Relevant to Personalized Medicine
	Molecular Biological Basis of Personalized Medicine
		The Human Genome
			ENCODE
		Chromosomes
		Genes
			The Genetic Code
			Gene Expression
			DNA Sequences and Structure
		Genetic Variations in the Human Genome
			Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
			Copy Number Variations in the Human Genome
			CNV Association with Disease
			Insertions and Deletions in the Human Genome
			Large Scale Variation in Human Genome
			Structural Variations in the Human Genome
			Mapping and Sequencing of Structural Variation from Human Genomes
			Role of DNA Sequencing in the Development of Personalized Medicine
		Interconnected Genetic and Genomic Patterns in Human Diseases
	Basics Technologies for Developing Personalized Medicine
		Definitions of Technologies Relevant to Personalized Medicine
		Problems with the ICH Definitions of Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacogenetics
	‘Omics’ and Personalized Medicine
		Relationship of Various Technologies to Personalized Medicine
	Conventional Medicine Versus Personalized Medicine
	Personalized Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine
	Role of Genetics in Future Approaches to Healthcare
		Genetic Medicine
		Human Disease and Genes
		Genetic and Environmental Interactions in Etiology of Human Diseases
		Role of Genetics in Development of Personalized Medicines
			Genetic Databases
			Clinical Genomic Database
			Genetic Epidemiology
			Limitations of Medical Genetics and Future Prospects
	Role of Systems Biology in Personalized Medicine
		Systems Pharmacology
		Systems Medicine
	Synthetic Biology and Development of Personalized Medicines
	Integration of Technologies for Personalized Medicine
	Reclassification of Diseases
	Translational Science and Personalized Medicine
	References
Chapter 2: Molecular Diagnostics in Personalized Medicine
	Introduction
	Molecular Diagnostic Technologies
		PCR-Based Methods
			DirectLinear™ Analysis
			Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
			Multiplex Allele-Specific Diagnostic Assay
			Representational Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis
			Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
			Real-Time PCR for Detection of CNVs
		Non-PCR Methods
			Arrayed Primer Extension
			Enzymatic Mutation Detection
	DNA Sequencing
		Role of Sequencing in Personalized Medicine
		Whole Genome Sequencing and Personalized Medicine
		RNA Sequencing
		Whole Exome Sequencing and Personalized Disease Risk
		Personal Genome Project
	Biochips and Microarrays
		Role of Biochip/Microarray Technology in Personalized Medicine
		Applications of Biochip/Microarray Technology in Personalized Medicine
		Biochip Technologies
			PCR on a Chip
			Gene Profiling Array
			Arrayit® H25K
			AmpliChip CYP450
		Standardizing the Microarrays
		Optical Mapping
		Biosensor Technologies for Biochips
			DNA-Based Biosensors
		Protein Biochips
			ProteinChip
			Proteomic Pattern Analysis
			New Developments in Protein Chips/Microarrays
			Protein Biochips/Microarrays for Personalized Medicine
		Microfluidics
			Fish-on-Chip
			Lab-on-a-Chip
			LabChip
			LabCD
	SNP Genotyping
		Genotyping and Haplotyping
			Haplotyping for Whole Genome Sequencing
			Predicting Drug Response with HapMap
		Technologies for SNP Analysis
		Biochip and Microarray-Based Detection of SNPs
			SNP Genotyping by MassARRAY
			BeadArray Technology
			SNP-IT Primer-Extension Technology
			Use of NanoChip for Detection of SNPs
			Electrochemical DNA Probes
			Laboratory Multiple Analyte Profile
			PCR-CTPP
			TaqMan Real-Time PCR
			Locked Nucleic Acid
			Molecular Inversion Probe Based Assays
			Pyrosequencing
			Smart Amplification Process Version 2
			Zinc Finger Proteins
			Mitochondrial SNPs
			Limitations of SNP in Genetic Testing
			Concluding Remarks on SNP Genotyping
			Impact of SNPs on Personalized Medicine
	Detection of Copy Number Variations
		Digital Array for CNV Detection
		CNVer Algorithm for CNV Detection
		CNVnator for Discovery of CNVs and Genotyping
	Study of Rare Variants in Pinpointing Disease-Causing Genes
	Application of Proteomics in Molecular Diagnosis
		Proteomic Technologies
			2D Gel Electrophoresis
			Mass Spectrometry
			2D PAGE and Mass Spectrometry
		Comparison of Proteomic and Genomic Approaches in Personalized Medicine
	Gene Expression Profiling
		DNA Microarrays
		Analysis of Single-Cell Gene Expression
		Gene Expression Profiling Based on Alternative RNA Splicing
		Gene Expression Analysis on Biopsy Samples
		Profiling Gene Expression Patterns of White Blood Cells
		Serial Analysis of Gene Expression
		Monitoring In Vivo Gene Expression by Molecular Imaging
	Molecular Imaging and Personalized Medicine
	Combination of Diagnostics and Therapeutics
		Use of Molecular Diagnostics for Stratification in Clinical Trials
		Companion Diagnostics
	Point-of-Care Diagnosis
		Advantages Versus Disadvantages of Point-of-Care Diagnosis
		Future Prospects of Point-of-Care Diagnosis
	Genetic Testing for Disease Predisposition
		Preventive Genetics by Early Diagnosis of Mitochondrial Diseases
		Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Services
	Future of Molecular Diagnostics in Personalized Medicine
	References
Chapter 3: Role of Biomarkers in Personalized Medicine
	Introduction
	Biomarkers and Diagnostics
	Expression Signatures as Diagnostic/Prognostic Tools
	Role of Biomarkers in Development of Personalized Drugs
	Drug Rescue by Biomarker-Based Personalized Medicine
	Biomarkers for Monitoring Response to Therapy
	Bioinformatics to Sort Biomarker Data for Personalized Medicine
		Use of Bayesian Approach in Biomarker-Based Clinical Trials
	Concluding Remarks
	References
Chapter 4: Pharmacogenetics
	Basics of Pharmacogenetics
	Role of Molecular Diagnostics in Pharmacogenetics
	Role of Pharmacogenetics in Pharmaceutical Industry
		Study of the Drug Metabolism and Pharmacological Effects
		Causes of Variations in Drug Metabolism
		Enzymes Relevant to Drug Metabolism
		Pharmacogenetics of Phase I Metabolism
			CYP450
			P450 CYP 2D6 Inhibition by Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
			Cytochrome P450 Polymorphisms and Response to Clopidogrel
			Lansoprazole and Cytochrome P450
			Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
		Pharmacogenetics of Phase II Metabolism
			N-Acetyltransferase
			Uridine Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferase
		Measurement of CYP Isoforms
		Polymorphism of Drug Transporters
		Genetic Variation in Drug Targets
			Polymorphisms of Kinase Genes
		Effect of Genetic Polymorphisms on Disease Response to Drugs
		Ethnic Differences in Drug Metabolism
		Gender Differences in Pharmacogenetics
		Role of Pharmacogenetics in Drug Safety
			Adverse Drug Reactions
			Adverse Drug Reactions in Children
			Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Toxicity of Chemotherapy
			Genetically Determined Adverse Drug Reactions
			Malignant Hyperthermia
			Pharmacogenetics of Clozapine-Induced Agranulocytosis
			Role of Pharmacogenetics in Warfarin Therapy
			Role of Pharmacogenetics in Antiplatelet Therapy
			Role of Pharmacogenetics in Carbamazepine Therapy
			Role of Pharmacogenetics in Statin Therapy
			FDA Consortium Linking Genetic Biomarkers to Serious Adverse Events
		Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Phenotyping, and Genotyping
			Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
			Phenotyping
			Genotyping
			Genotyping vs Phenotyping
		Phenomics
			Limitations of Genotype-Phenotype Association Studies
		Molecular Toxicology in Relation to Personalized Medicines
			Toxicogenomics
			Biomarkers of Drug Toxicity
			Drug-Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity
			Gene Expression Studies
		Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Trials
		Postmarketing Pharmacogenetics
	Clinical Implications of Pharmacogenetics
		Application of CYP450 Genotyping in Clinical Practice
		Pharmacogenomic Biomarker Information in Drug Labels
		Genotype-Based Drug Dose Adjustment
	Use of Pharmacogenetics in Clinical Pharmacology
		Application of CYP2C19 Pharmacogenetics for Personalized Medicine
		Genotyping for Identifying Responders to Sulfasalazine
		HLA Alleles Associated with Lumiracoxib-Related Liver Injury
		Pharmacogenetic Basis of Thiopurine Toxicity
		Tranilast-Induced Hyperbilirubinemia due to Gene Polymorphism
		Linking Pharmacogenetics with Pharmacovigilance
			Genetic Susceptibility to ADRs
			Linking Genetic Testing to Postmarketing ADR Surveillance
		Recommendations for the Clinical Use of Pharmacogenetics
	Limitations of Pharmacogenetics
	Pharmacoepigenomics vs Pharmacogenetics in Drug Safety
	Future Role of Pharmacogenetics in Personalized Medicine
	References
Chapter 5: Pharmacogenomics
	Introduction
	Basics of Pharmacogenomics
	Pharmacogenomics vs Pharmacogenetics
	Pharmacogenomics and Drug Discovery
		Preclinical Prediction of Drug Efficacy
	Pharmacogenomics and Clinical Trials
		Impact of Genetic Profiling on Clinical Studies
		Limitations of the Pharmacogenomic-Based Clinical Trials
	Current Status and Future Prospects of Pharmacogenomics
	References
Chapter 6: Pharmacoproteomics
	Basics of Proteomics
	Proteomic Approaches to the Study of Pathophysiology of Diseases
	Single Cell Proteomics for Personalized Medicine
	Diseases Due to Misfolding of Proteins
		Therapies for Protein Misfolding
	Proteomic Technologies for Drug Discovery and Development
		Role of Reverse-Phase Protein Microarray in Drug Discovery
		Dynamic Proteomics for Targeting Disease Pathways
		Target Identification and Validation
	Role of Proteomics in Clinical Drug Safety
		Toxicoproteomics
			Hepatotoxicity
			Nephrotoxicity
			Neurotoxicity
	Applications of Pharmacoproteomics in Personalized Medicine
	References
Chapter 7: Role of Metabolomics in Personalized Medicine
	Metabolomics and Metabonomics
	Metabolomics Bridges the Gap Between Genotype and Phenotype
	Metabolomics, Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine
		Urinary Profiling by Capillary Electrophoresis
		Lipid Profiling
		Role of Metabolomics in Biomarker Identification and Pattern Recognition
		Validation of Biomarkers in Large-Scale Human Metabolomics Studies
	Pharmacometabonomics
	Metabonomic Technologies for Toxicology Studies
	Metabonomics/Metabolomics and Personalized Nutrition
	References
Chapter 8: Non-genomic Factors in the Development of Personalized Medicine
	Introduction
	Circadian Rhythms and Personalized Medicine
	Environmental Factors in Disease
		Human Intestinal Microflora
		Metabolic Interactions of the Host and the Intestinal Microflora
	Epigenomics and Personalized Medicine
		Genetics vs. Epigenetics
	Cytomics as a Basis for Personalized Medicine
	Contributions of Nanobiotechnology to Personalized Medicine
		Role of Nanobiotechnology in Molecular Diagnostics
			Cantilevers for Personalized Medical Diagnostics
			Nanobiotechnology for Therapeutics Design and Monitoring
	References
Chapter 9: Personalized Biological Therapies
	Introduction
	Recombinant Human Proteins
	Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies
	Cell Therapy
		Autologous Tissue and Cell Transplants
		Stem Cells
			Induced Pluripotential Stem Cells for Personalized Cell Therapy
			Role of Stem Cells Derived from Unfertilized Embryos
		Cloning and Personalized Cell Therapy
		Use of Stem Cells for Drug Testing
	Gene Therapy
		Stem Cell-Based Personalized Gene Therapy for Cancer
	Personalized Vaccines
		Personalized Cancer Vaccines
	Antisense Therapy
		RNA Interference
		MicroRNAs
	References
Chapter 10: Personalized Therapy of Cancer
	Introduction
		Challenges of Cancer Classification
		Systems Biology of Cancer
		Relationships of Technologies for Personalized Management of Cancer
	Impact of Molecular Diagnostics on the Management of Cancer
		A Universal NGS-Based Oncology Test System
		Analysis of RNA Splicing Events in Cancer
		Analysis of Chromosomal Alterations in Cancer Cells
		Cancer Classification Using Microarrays
		Catalog of Cancer Genes for Personalized Therapy
		Circulating Cancer Cell Analysis for Personalizing Therapy
			Detection of Loss of Heterozygosity
			BEAMing Technology for Analysis of Circulating Tumor DNA
		Diagnosis of Cancer of an Unknown Primary
		Diagnostics for Detection of Minimal Residual Disease
		DNA Repair Biomarkers
		Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization
		Gene Expression Profiling
			OnkoMatch Tumor Genotyping
			Gene Expression Profiles Predict Chromosomal Instability in Tumors
		Isolation and Characterization of Circulating Cancer Cells
		Modulation of CYP450 Activity for Cancer Therapy
		NanoFlares for Detection of CTCs
		Pathway-Based Analysis of Cancer
			Conversion of Gene-Level Information into Pathway-Level Information
			Personalized Therapies Based on Oncogenic Pathways Signatures
		Quantum Dot-Based Test for DNA Methylation
		Role of Molecular Imaging in Personalized Therapy of Cancer
			Functional Diffusion MRI
			FDG-PET/CT for Personalizing Cancer Treatment
			Image-Guided Personalized Drug Delivery in Cancer
			Tumor Imaging and Elimination by Targeted Gallium Corrole
			Future Prospects of Molecular Imaging in Management of Cancer
		Unraveling the Genetic Code of Cancer
	Cancer Prognosis
		Detection of Mutations for Risk Assessment and Prevention
		Hematological Cancer Risk Inferred from Blood DNA Sequence
	Impact of Biomarkers on Management of Cancer
		HER-2/neu Oncogene as a Biomarker for Cancer
		L-Asparaginase Treatment of Cancer Guided by a Biomarker
		Oncogene GOLPH3 as a Cancer Biomarker
		Predictive Biomarkers for Cancer
		Sequencing to Discover Biomarkers to Personalize Cancer Treatment
		VeraTag™ Assay System for Cancer Biomarkers
	Determination of Response to Therapy
		Biomarker-Based Assays for Predicting Response to Anticancer Therapeutics
		Ex Vivo Testing of Tumor Biopsy for Chemotherapy Sensitivity
		Genomic Approaches to Predict Response to Anticancer Agents
			Gene Expression Patterns to Predict Response of Cancer to Therapy
			Genomic Analysis of Tumor Biopsies
			Genotype-Dependent Efficacy of Pathway Inhibition in Cancer
			Mutation Detection at Molecular Level
			RNA Disruption Assay™
			Role of Genetic Variations in Susceptibility to Anticancer Drugs
		Non-genetic Factors for Variations in Response of Cancer Cells to Drugs
		Proteomic Analysis of Tumor Biopsies to Predict Response to Treatment
		Real-Time Apoptosis Monitoring
		Serum Nucleosomes as Indicators of Sensitivity to Chemotherapy
		Targeted Microbubbles to Tumors for Monitoring Anticancer Therapy
		PET Imaging for Determining Response to Chemotherapy
			PET Imaging with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
		Tissue Systems Biology Approach to Personalized Management of Cancer
	Molecular Diagnostics Combined with Cancer Therapeutics
		Aptamers for Combined Diagnosis and Therapeutics of Cancer
		Combining Diagnosis and Therapy of Metastatic Cancer
		Detection and Destruction of CTCs with Nanoparticles and X-Rays
		Monoclonal Antibodies for Combining Diagnosis with Therapy of Cancer
	Molecular Profiling of Cancer
	Targeted Cancer Therapies
		Targeting Glycoproteins on Cell Surface
		Targeting Pathways in Cancer
		Targeted Personalized Anticancer Medicines in Clinical Use
	Immunotherapy of Cancer
		Functional Antibody-Based Therapies
		Immunotherapy of Dormant Cancer
	Personalized Cancer Vaccines
		Antigen-Specific Vaccines
			Active Immunotherapy Based on Antigen Specific to the Tumor
		Tumor-Derived Vaccines
			FANG Vaccine
			MyVax
			OncoVAX
			Tumor Cells Treated with Dinitrophenyl
			Prophage
			Melacine
		Patient-Specific Cell-Based Vaccines
			Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines
		Adoptive Cell Therapy
			Combination of Antiangiogenic Agents with ACT
			Genetically Targeted T Cells for Treating B Cell Malignancies
			Genetic Engineering of Tumor Cells
			Hybrid Cell Vaccination
		Personalized Peptide Cancer Vaccines
		Current Status and Future Prospects of Personalized Cancer Vaccines
	Personalized Radiation Therapy
		Use of Radiation Sensitivity Biomarkers to Personalized Radiotherapy
		Use of Imaging to Monitor Radioimmunotherapy of Non-­Hodgkin Lymphoma
	Role of Nanobiotechnology in Personalized Management of Cancer
	Design of Future Personalized Cancer Therapies
		Personalized Therapy of Cancer Based on Cancer Stem Cells
		Role of Epigenetics in Development of Personalized Cancer Therapies
		Selective Destruction of Cancer Cells While Sparing Normal Cells
			Sphingolipids
			Hyperbaric Oxygen as Adjunct to Radiotherapy
			Targeting Response to Transformation-Induced Oxidative Stress
			Targeting Enzymes to Prevent Proliferation of Cancer Cells
	Role of Oncoproteomics in Personalized Therapy of Cancer
		Cancer Tissue Proteomics
	Role of Sequencing in Personalized Therapy of Cancer
	Pharmacogenomic-Based Chemotherapy
		Whole Genome Technology to Predict Drug Resistance
		Anticancer Drug Selection Based on Molecular Characteristics of Tumor
		Testing Microsatellite-Instability for Response to Chemotherapy
	Pharmacogenetics of Cancer Chemotherapy
		CYP 1A2
		Thiopurine Methyltransferase
		Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase
		UGT1A1 Test as Guide to Irinotecan Therapy
	Role of Computational Models in Personalized Anticancer Therapy
		A Computational Model of Kinetically Tailored Treatment
		Mathematical Modeling of Tumor Microenvironments
		Modeling Signaling Pathways to Reposition Anticancer Drugs
	Therapy Resistance in Cancer
		Mechanism of Therapy Resistance in Cancer
			Role of Splice Variants in Resistance to Cancer Therapy
			Expression of P-Glycoprotein Gene by Tumor
			Overexpression of Multidrug Resistance Gene
			P53 Mutations
		Detection of Drug Resistance
			Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase
			Metabolic Profiling of Cancer
		Management of Drug Resistance in Cancer
			Chemogenomic Approach to Drug Resistance
			Determination of Chemotherapy Response by Topoisomerase Levels
			Management of Drug Resistance in Leukemia
			Resistance to Vaccines in Cancer Recurrence After Surgery
			Systems Biology Approach to Drug-Resistant Cancer
	Personalized Therapy of Cancer Metastases
	Personalized Management of Cancers of Various Organs
		Personalized Management of Brain Tumors
			Aptamers for Selective Targeting of Tumor Initiating Cells in GBM
			Bioinformatic Approach to Personalizing Treatment of GBM
			Biosimulation Approach to Personalizing Treatment of Brain Cancer
			Companion Diagnostic for Viral Gene Therapy of Brain Cancer
			Drug Resistance in GBM
			Genetics and Genomics of Brain Cancer
			Glioma Actively Personalized Vaccine Consortium
			Prognosis of Glioblastoma Multiforme Based on Its Genetic Landscape
			Molecular Diagnostics for Personalized Management of Brain Cancer
			Personalized Chemotherapy of Brain Tumors
			Supratentorial Hemispheric Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas
			Personalized Therapy of Oligodendroglial Tumors (OTs)
			Personalized Therapy of Neuroblastomas
			Personalized Therapy of Medulloblastomas
			Personalized Management of Germ Cell Brain Tumors
			Personalized Management of Meningiomas
			Future Prospects of Personalized Therapy of Malignant Gliomas
		Personalized Management of Breast Cancer
			Developing Personalized Drugs for Breast Cancer
			Gene Expression Plus Conventional Predictors of Breast Cancer
			Her2 Testing in Breast Cancer as a Guide to Treatment
			HER2/neu-Derived Peptide Vaccine for Breast Cancer
			Molecular Diagnostics in Breast Cancer
			Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer
			Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer
			Proteomics-Based Personalized Management of Breast Cancer
			Predicting Response to Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer
			Prediction of Resistance to Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer
			Prediction of Adverse Reaction to Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer
			Prediction of Recurrence in Breast Cancer for Personalizing Therapy
			Prognostic Tests for Breast Cancer
			Racial Factors in the Management of Breast Cancer
			RATHER Consortium to Study Personalized Approach to Breast Cancer
			TAILORx (Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment)
			Tamoxin Therapy for ER-Positive Breast Cancer
			Triple Negative Breast Cancer
			Trends and Future Prospects of Breast Cancer Research
			Understanding Tumor Diversity in Mouse Mammary Cancer Model
		Personalized Management of Ovarian Cancer
			Early Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer
			Determining Response to Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer
			Prognosis of Ovarian Cancer Based on CLOVAR
			Recurrent and Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer
			Pathway Targeted Therapies for Ovarian Cancer
			Targeting Hematogenous Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer
			Vynfinit ® for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer
		Personalized Management of Head and Neck Cancer
			Relevance of Biomarkers of HPV-Related Head and Neck Cancer
		Personalized Management of Hematological Malignancies
			Personalized Management of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
			Personalized Management of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
			Personalized Management of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
			Personalized Management of Multiple Myeloma
			Personalized Management of Myelodysplastic Syndrome
		Personalized Management of Lymphomas
			Personalized Management B Cell Lymphomas
			Personalized Vaccine for Follicular Lymphoma
			Companion Diagnostic for Treatment of Lymphoma with Adcentris™
		Personalized Management of Gastrointestinal Cancer
			Personalized Management of Esophageal Cancer
			Personalized Management of Gastric Cancer
			Personalized Management of Colorectal Cancer
			Sequencing for Personalized Management of Colorectal Cancer
			Systems Biology Approach to Drug Resistance in Colorectal Cancer
			Resistance to Targeted EGFR Blockade in CRC
		Personalized Management of Liver Cancer
			Prediction of Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
		Personalized Management of Lung Cancer
			Crizotinib for Personalized Management of NSCLC
			Ceritinib
			EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Treatment
			Development of Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors
			Molecular Subtyping of Lung Cancer
			Personalized Therapy of NSCLC Based on KIF5B/RET Fusion Oncogene
			Predicting Response of NSCLC to Platinum-Based Therapy
			Proteomics for Discovery of Metabolic Biomarkers of Lung Cancer
			Role of microRNAs as Biomarkers of Lung Cancer
			Role of a New Classification System in the Management of Lung Cancer
			Selecting Therapy of Cancer Arising from Respiratory Papillomatosis
			Testing for Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer
			Testing for Prognosis of Lung Cancer
		Personalized Management of Malignant Melanoma
			Inhibitors of BRAF Mutation for Metastatic Melanoma
			Management of Drug-Resistant Metastatic Melanoma
			Vaccine for Malignant Melanoma Based on Heat Shock Protein
		Personalized Management of Pancreatic Cancer
			Biomarkers of Pancreatic Cancer
			Histone Modifications Predict Treatment Response in Pancreatic Cancer
			Transport Properties of Pancreatic Cancer and Gemcitabine Delivery
		Personalized Management of Prostate Cancer
			Assessing Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer by Genotyping
			Diagnostics for Guiding Therapy of Prostate Cancer
			Detection of Prostate Cancer Metastases
			Early Detection of Cancer Recurrence and Guiding Treatment
			Effects of Lifestyle Changes Shown by Gene Expression Studies
			Prolaris Assay for Determining Prognosis in Prostate Cancer
			Personalized Peptide Vaccine for Prostate Cancer
		Personalized Management of Thyroid Cancer
	Future of Cancer Therapy
		Challenges for Developing Personalized Cancer Therapies
		Cancer Genome Atlas
		COLTHERES Consortium
		Computer and Imaging Technologies for Personalizing Cancer Treatment
		Genomic Cancer Care Alliance
		Integrated Genome-Wide Analysis of Cancer for Personalized Therapy
		International Cancer Genome Consortium
		National Cancer Institute of US
		PREDICT Consortium
		Quebec Clinical Research Organization in Cancer
	References
Chapter 11: Personalized Management of Infectious Diseases
	Introduction
	Personalized Management of Bacterial Infections
		Bacterial Genomics and Sequencing
			Pyrosequencing of Microbial Flora in Leg Ulcers
			Sequencing for Study of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria
			Sequencing for Predicting the Virulence of MRSA
		Role of Rapid Molecular Diagnosis at Point of Care
		Personalized Vaccines Against Bacterial Infections
		Personalized Management of Sepsis
		Personalized Management of Tuberculosis
	Personalized Management of Viral Infections
		Personalized Approach to Management of HIV
			Decoding the Structure of an Entire HIV Genome
			Genetics of Human Susceptibility to HIV Infection
			Host-Pathogen Interactions That Regulate HIV-1 Replication
			Genetic Basis of Human Body’s Resistance Against HIV
			Pathogenesis of AIDS
			Current Therapies of HIV/AIDS
			Pharmacogenomics of Antiretroviral Agents
			Pharmacogenetics and HIV Drug Safety
			Role of Diagnostic Testing in Management of HIV
			CD4 Counts as a Guide to Drug Therapy for AIDS
			Role of Biomarkers in Management of HIV/AIDS
			Drug-Resistance in HIV/AIDS
			Sequencing for Detecting Mutations to Personalize HIV Therapy
			PhenoSense® to Test HIV Drug Resistance
			Gene Therapy Strategies in HIV/AIDS
			Personalized Vaccine for HIV
		Personalized Treatment of Hepatitis B
		Personalized Treatment of Hepatitis C
			Genotype and Response to Treatment for Hepatitis C
			Drug Resistance in Hepatitis C
			Role of Sequencing in Personalized Management of HCV
	Personalized Management of Fungal Infections
	Personalized Management of Malaria
		Genomics of Malaria
	References
Chapter 12: Personalized Management of Neurological Disorders
	Introduction
	Neurogenomics
		Applications of Neurogenomics in Neurological Disorders
		Impact of Neurogenomics on the Development of Personalized Neurology
		Epigenomics/Epigenetics
	Neuroproteomics
		Applications of Neuroproteomics for Study of the Nervous System
		CSF Tests Based on Proteomics
		Diagnosis of Neurologic Disorders by Examination of Proteins in the Blood
		Role of Proteomics in Neuropharmacology
	Neurometabolomics
	Diagnosis-Guided Therapies for Neurological Disorders
	Personalized Biological Therapies for Neurological Disorders
	Personalized Management of Alzheimer Disease
		Introduction to Alzheimer Disease
		Diagnosis of AD
		Genomic Basis of Personalized Approach to Alzheimer Disease
		Prospects for the Future Management of AD
	Personalized Management of Parkinson Disease
		Genomic Basis of Personalized Approach to Parkinson Disease
		Role of Pharmacogenetics in Personalizing Therapy of PD
		Discovery of Subgroup-Selective Drug Targets in PD
		Personalized Cell Therapy for PD
	Personalized Management of Huntington’s Disease
		Genomics of Huntington Disease
		Genetic Testing for HD
		Personalized Cell Therapy for Huntington Disease
	Personalized Management of Epilepsy
		Biomarkers of Epilepsy
		Genetics/Genomics of Epilepsy
		Choice of the Right Antiepileptic Drug
		Pharmacogenomics of Epilepsy
		Pharmacogenetics of Epilepsy
		Drug Resistance in Epilepsy
		An Algorithm for Personalized Management of Epilepsy
		Future Prospects for Management of Epilepsy
	Personalized Management of Migraine
		Pharmacogenomics of Migraine
		Individualization of Use of Triptans for Migraine
		Multitarget Therapeutics for Personalized Treatment of Headache
	Personalized Management of Stroke
		Application of Proteomics for Personalizing Stroke Management
		Brain Imaging in Trials of Restorative Therapies for Stroke
		Decisions for Evacuation of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
		Decisions for Revascularization Procedures in Chronic Post-­stroke Stage
			Personalized Cell Therapy for Management of Stroke
			Management of Stroke According to Stage
	Personalized Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
		Genomics of Multiple Sclerosis
		Pharmacogenetic Approach to Management of Multiple Sclerosis
		Immunopathological Patterns of Demyelination for Assessing Therapy
		Personalizing Mitoxantrone Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis
		Personalized Cell Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis
			Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
			Fusokine Method of Personalized Cell Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis
		Pharmacogenomics of IFN-β Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis
		T Cell-Based Personalized Vaccine for MS
	Personalized Management of Pain
		Genetic Factors in Response to Pain
		Genetic Mutations with Loss of Pain
		Pharmacogenetics/Pharmacogenomics of Pain
			Pharmacogenetics of Opioids
			Pharmacogenetics of NSAIDs
		Mechanism-Specific Management of Pain
		Preoperative Testing to Tailor Postoperative Analgesic Requirements
		Personalized Analgesics
		Signature of Pain on Brain Imaging
		Concluding Remarks on Personalized Management of Pain
	Personalized Management of Traumatic Brain Injury
		Molecular Basis of Management of Traumatic Brain Injury
	Personalized Management of Sleep Disorders
		Personalized Therapy of Insomnia
	Personalized Approach to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
	Personalized Approach to Ataxias
	Future Prospects of Personalized Neurology
	References
Chapter 13: Personalized Management of Psychiatric Disorders
	Introduction
	Psychopharmacogenetics/Psychopharmacodynamics
		Serotonin Genes
		Calcium Channel Gene
		Dopamine Receptor Genes
			COMT Genotype and Response to Amphetamine
		Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase
		GeneSight Tests for Individualized Therapy of Psychiatric Disorders
		Personalized Antipsychotic Therapy
		Personalized Antidepressant Therapy
			Biomarkers of Response to Antidepressant Treatment
			EEG to Predict Adverse Effects and Evaluate Antidepressant Efficacy
			Individualization of SSRI Treatment
			Role of Protein sFRP3 in Predicting Response to Antidepressants
			Treatment Resistant Depression
			Vilazodone with a Test for Personalized Treatment of Depression
	Personalized Management of ADHD
		Genotype and Response to Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD
		Pharmaco-EEG for Personalized Treatment of ADHD
	Personalized Approach to Addiction
		Pharmacogenetics of Drug Addiction
		Genetic Polymorphism and Management of Alcoholism
		Personalized Therapy for Smoking Cessation
			Antidepressant Therapy for Smoking Cessation
			Effectiveness of Nicotine Patches in Relation to Genotype
	Future Prospects of Personalized Psychiatry
	References
Chapter 14: Personalized Management of Cardiovascular Disorders
	Introduction
		Cardiogenomics
	Role of Diagnostics in Personalized Management of Cardiovascular Disease
		Cardiovascular Disorders with a Genetic Component
			Gene Mutations Associated with Risk of Coronary Heart Disease
			Gene Variant as a Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac Death
			KIF6 Gene Test as a Guide to Management of Heart Disease
			NGS Sequencing for Management of Cardiovascular Disorders
			SNP Genotyping in Cardiovascular Disorders
			Testing in Coronary Heart Disease
		Biomarkers and Personalized Management of Cardiovascular Disorders
		Pharmacogenomics of Cardiovascular Disorders
		Modifying the Genetic Risk for Myocardial Infarction
		Personalized Management of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia
			Management of Chronic Angina Pectoris
		Management of Heart Failure
			β-Blockers
			Bucindolol
			BiDil
		Management of Hypertension
			Adjusting Therapy of Hypertension to Fluctuations of Blood Pressure
			Choice of Drugs for Hypertension
			Correction of Causes and Risk Factors of Hypertension
			Genes and Hypertension
			Improving Management of HPN by Targeting New Pathways
			Individualized Therapy of HPN Based on Risk Factors of Heart Disease
			Pharmacogenomics of Diuretic Drugs
			Pharmacogenomics of ACE Inhibitors
			Prediction of Antihypertensive Activity of Rostafuroxin
			Role of Pharmacogenetics in Management of Hypertension
			Scheme for Management of Hypertension by Personalized Approach
		Pharmacogenetics of Lipid-Lowering Therapies
			Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Cholesterol Metabolism
			Role of eNOS Gene Polymorphisms
			Prediction of Response to Statins
			Personalized Management of Women with Hyperlipidemia
			Therapeutic Alternatives in Patients with Statin Intolerance
		Thrombotic Disorders
			Factor V Leiden Mutation
			Anticoagulant Therapy
			Antiplatelet Therapy
		Nanobiotechnology-Based Personalized Therapy of Cardiovascular Diseases
		Project euHeart for Personalized Management of Heart Disease
		Concluding Remarks on Personalized Management of Cardiovascular Diseases
	References
Chapter 15: Personalized Management of Pulmonary Disorders
	Introduction
		Role of Genetic Ancestory in Lung Function
	Biomarkers of Pulmonary Disorders
		Biomarkers of Inflammation and Lung Function in the Elderly
		Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Lung Diseases
		Biomarkers of Community-Acquired Pneumonia
			BNP as a Biomarker of Chronic Pulmonary Disease
			Plasma Biomarkers Related to Inflammation
			Urinary NO as Biomarker
	Personalized Therapy of Asthma
		Biomarkers of Asthma
			Biomarker for Rhinovirus-Induced Asthma Exacerbation
			Biomarkers for Predicting Response to Corticosteroid Therapy
			Cytokines as Biomarkers of Asthma Severity
			Exaled NO as a Biomarker of Asthma
			Endothelin-1 in Exhaled Breath as Biomarker of Asthma
			IgE as a Biomarker to Guide Dosing of Omalizumab for Asthma
		Genotyping in Asthma
			Genetic Polymorphism and Response to β2-Adrenergic Agonists
		Lebrikizumab for Personalized Treatment of Asthma
	Personalized Therapy of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
		Biomarkers of COPD
			Alpha1-Antitrypsin Gene Polymorphisms Predisposing to Emphysema
			Biomarkers of Lung Failure in COPD
			Chromagranin A as Biomarker of COPD in Smokers
		Gene Expression Studies of Lung Tissue in COPD
			Gene Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood of Patients with COPD
			Increased Expression of PIGF as a Biomarker of COPD
		Prognosis of COPD
		Management of COPD
	Personalized Management of Interstitial Lung Disease
		Biomarkers of Interstitial Lung Disease
			Pulmonary Surfactant Proteins as Biomarkers for Lung Diseases
			Serum KL-6 as Biomarker of Interstitial Lung Disease
		Developing Personalized Therapies for Interstitial Lung Disease
	References
Chapter 16: Personalized Management of Genetic Disorders
	Introduction
	Molecular Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders
		Molecular Diagnostic Technologies
			Cytogenetics
			FISH with Probes to the Telomeres
			Single Copy FISH Probes
			Comparative Genomic Hybridization
			Representational Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis
			Diagnosis of Genomic Rearrangements by Multiplex PCR
			Mutation Detection Technologies
	Biomarkers for Genetic Disorders
		Biomarkers for Down’s Syndrome
		Biomarkers for Muscular Dystrophy
		Biomarkers of Phenylketonuria
		Genetic Biomarkers for Psoriasis
		Biomarkers of Lysosomal Storage Disorders
	Sequencing in Genetic Disorders
		DNA Sequencing for Prenatal Disorders
			Sequencing Genomes of the Newborn to Screen for Genetic Disorders
		Study of Rare Variants in Pinpointing Disease-Causing Genes
			Discovery of the Gene for Miller Syndrome
	Personalized Cell and Gene Therapies of Genetic Disorders
		Personalized Stem Cell Transplant for Sickle Cell Anemia
		Hurler Syndrome
		Personalized Gene Therapy of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
			Antisense Oligonucleotide-Induced Exon-Skipping for DMD
	Personalized Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis
		Current Management of CF
		Personalizing New Therapies for CF
		Gene Therapy and Pharmacogenomic Approach to CF
	References
Chapter 17: Personalized Approaches to Immune Disorders
	Introduction
	Personalized Approaches in Immunology
	Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics of Immunosuppression
	Personalized Management of Patients with Lupus Erythematosus
	Personalized Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis
		Genetics and Epigenetic Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis
		Variations in the Effectiveness of Various Treatments of RA
		Biomarkers for Personalizing Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis
		DIATSTAT™ Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptides in Rheumatoid Arthritis
		Personalization of COX-2 Inhibitor Therapy
		Personalization of Infliximab Therapy
		Personalized Therapy of RA Guided by Anti-citrullinated Protein Antibodies
	Personalized Approaches to Improve Organ Transplantation
		Personalization of Kidney Transplantation
		Personalization of Cardiac Transplantation
		Prediction of Rejection for Personalizing Anti-rejection Treatment
		Personalized Immunosuppressant Therapy in Organ Transplants
		Role of Immunological Biomarkers in Monitoring Grafted Patients
	Improved Matching of Blood Transfusion
	References
Chapter 18: Personalized Approaches to Miscellaneous Problems in Healthcare
	Personalized Management of Diabetes
	Personalized Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders
		Inflammatory Bowel Disease
			Biomarkers of IBD
			Personalized Approaches to Management of IBD
		Personalized Management of Lactose Intolerance
	Personalized Geriatrics
		Chronological vs Biological Age
		Pharmacogenetics and Adverse Drug Reactions
	Personalized Management of Skin Disorders
		Genetic Testing for Personalized Skin Care
		Management of Hair Loss Based on Genetic Testing
	Personalized Preventive Medicine
	Female Sexual Dysfunction
		Hormone Replacement Therapy in Women
	Personalized Management of Osteoporosis
	Personalized Management of Renal Disease
	Personalized Care of Trauma Patients
	Personalized Medical Care of Astronauts During Space Flights
	References
Chapter 19: Personalized Non-pharmacological Therapies
	Introduction
	Acupuncture
		Personalized Acupuncture Therapy
	Personalized Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
	Personalized Nutrition
		Nutrigenomics
			Genomics of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation
			Nutrigenomics and Functional Foods
			Nutrigenetics and Personalized Medicine
			Nutrigenomics and Personalized Medicine
		Nutrition and Proteomics
		Personalized Diet Prescription
	Personalized Physical Exercise
		Variations in Response to Aerobic Exercise
		Variations in Exercise-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy and Strength
	Personalized Surgery
	References
Chapter 20: Development of Personalized Medicine
	Introduction
	Players in the Development of Personalized Medicine
		Personalized Medicine Coalition
	Role of Pharmaceutical Industry
		Personalized Drug Discovery
		Personalized Approach to Clinical Trials
			Use of Bayesian Approach in Biomarker-Based Clinical Trials
			Individualizing Risks and Benefits in Clinical Trials
			Clinical Trials of Therapeutics and Companion Diagnostics
		Role of Drug Delivery in Personalized Medicine
		Repositioning of Drugs for Personalized Medicine
		Production and Distribution of Personalized Medicines
	Role of Biotechnology Companies
	Role of Life Sciences Industries
		Role of the Clinical Laboratories
		Role of Molecular Imaging in Personalized Medicine
			Molecular Imaging for Personalized Drug Development in Oncology
			Molecular Imaging and CNS Drug Development
			Commercial Development of Molecular Imaging
	Role of the US Government and Agencies in Personalized Medicine
		Department of Health and Human Services and Personalized Medicine
		Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
		Comparative Effectiveness Research
		Role of the US Government Agencies in Personalized Medicine
			Evaluation of Genetic Tests and Genomic Applications
			NIH’s Roadmap Initiative for Medical Research
			NIH and Personalized Medicine
			NIH Collaboration with the FDA
			NIH and Genetic Testing Registry
			National Human Genome Research Institute
			National Institute of General Medical Sciences
			National Institute of Standards and Technology
			NCI & FDA Collaboration for Clinical Proteomics
			Role of the Centers for Disease Control
	Role of Academic Institutions in the US
		Baylor College of Medicine
		Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative™
		Delaware Valley Personalized Medicine Project
		Duke University Medical Center and Genomic Medicine
		Ignite Institute
		Indiana University Institute for Personalized Medicine
		Institute of Medicine’s Role in Personalized Medicine
		Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine
		Johns Hopkins Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine Research
		Mayo Clinic’s Centers for Individualized Medicine
		Mt. Sinai Medical Center’s Personalized Medicine Research Program
		New York Genome Center
		P4 Medicine Institute
		Personalized Medicine Partnership of Florida
		Partners Personalized Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital
			Personalized Oncology
		Personalized Oncology at Oregon Health & Science University
		Southeast Nebraska Cancer Center’s Personalized Medicine Network
		Stanford Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine
			Stanford’s Pharmacogenetics Research Knowledge Base
		UAB-HudsonAlpha Center for Genomic Medicine
		University of Colorado’s Center for Personalized Medicine
		UNC Institute for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy
		Wisconsin Genomics Initiative
	Role of Healthcare Organizations
	Role of the Medical Profession
		The American Medical Association and Personalized Medicine
		Medical Education
		Off-Label Prescribing and Personalized Medicine
	Role of Patients
		Public Attitude Towards Personalized Medicine
	Role of Genetic Banking Systems and Databases
		Role of Biobanks in Development of Personalized Medicine
			UK Biobank
			Biobanking and Development of Personalized Medicine in EU
			Lausanne Institutional Biobank
		CARTaGENE for Biobanks in Canada
	Role of Bioinformatics in Development of Personalized Medicine
		Exploration of Disease-Gene Relationship
		Biosimulation Techniques for Developing Personalized Medicine
		Health Information Management
		Electronic Health Records
			Cost of EHR and Savings on Healthcare Expenses in the US
			EHRs and Genome-Wide Studies
			Linking Patient Medical Records and Genetic Information
			Management of Personal Genomic Data
			Use of EHRs for Improving Safety of New Medicines
			Use of EHRs for Genetic Research
			Use of EHRs for Personalized Drug Discovery and Development
		Personalized Prognosis of Disease
	Global Scope of Personalized Medicine
		Global Alliance for Genomics and Health
		Personalized Medicine in Canada
			Personalized Medicine at Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
			Personalized Medicine Partnership for Cancer in Quebec
			Quebec Center of Excellence in Personalized Medicine
		Personalized Medicine in the EU
			European Personalized Medicine Diagnostics Association
			UK National Health Service and Medical Genetics
			Personalized Medicine in Germany
		Personalized Medicine in Israel
		Personalized Medicine in the Developing Countries
	Advantages of Personalized Medicine
	Limitations of Personalized Medicine
	References
Chapter 21: Ethical Aspects of Personalized Medicine
	Introduction to Ethical Issues
	Ethical Issues of Pharmacogenetics
	Ethical Aspects of Genetic Information
		Ethical Issues of Whole Genome Analysis
		Ethical Aspects of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Services
		Privacy Issues in Personalized Medicine
		Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act in the US
		Genotype-Specific Clinical Trials
	Social Issues in Personalized Medicine
	Race and Personalized Medicine
	Gene Patents and Personalized Medicine
	References
Chapter 22: Regulatory Aspects of Personalized Medicine
	Introduction
	FDA and Personalized Medicine
		Regulatory Aspects of Pharmacogenetics
		FDA and Pharmacogenomics
			FDA Guidance for Pharmacogenomic Data Submissions
			Joint Guidelines of the FDA and EU Regulators for Pharmacogenomics
			Pharmacogenomic/Pharmacogenetic Information in Drug Labels
			FDA Guidelines for Pharmacogenomics-Based Dosing
		FDA and Validation of Biomarkers
		FDA and Predictive Medicine
		FDA Regulation of Multivariate Index Assays
	Evaluation of Companion Diagnostics/Therapeutic
	CLSI Guidelines for RNA Controls in Gene Expression Assays
	Regulation of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing
		Need for Regulatory Oversight of DTC
	References
Chapter 23: Economics of Personalized Medicine
	Introduction
	Perceived Financial Concerns
	Personalized Medicine and Orphan Drug Syndrome
	Commercial Aspects of Pharmacogenomics
		Cost of DNA Testing
		Lowering the Cost of Sequencing the Human Genome
		Cost of Genotyping
		Cost of Pharmacogenomics-Based Clinical Trials
		Personalized Medicine and the Rising Healthcare Costs in the US
		Genetic Testing and Cost of Healthcare
		Reducing Healthcare Costs by Combining Diagnostics with Therapeutics
		Costs of Pharmacogenetic Testing
		Pharmacogenetics to Reduce the Cost Incurred by Adverse Drug Reactions
		Cost Effectiveness of HIV Genotyping in Treatment of AIDS
		Cost-Effectiveness of Warfarin Pharmacogenomics
		Cost-Benefit Analysis of KRAS and BRAF Screening in CRC
		Lowering the High Costs of Cancer Chemotherapy
	Concluding Remarks on the Economics of Personalized Medicine
	References
Chapter 24: Future of Personalized Medicine
	Introduction
	Ongoing Studies
		Personal Genome Project
		Genome-Wide Association Studies
		The 1000 Genomes Project
		Genomics of Aging in a Genetically Homogeneous Population
		Translational Science and Personalized Medicine
		Translation of Genomic Research into Genetic Testing for Healthcare
		Long-Term Behavioral Effects of Personal Genetic Testing
		Personalized Predictive Medicine
		Connected Health and Personalized Medicine
	Drivers for the Development of Personalized Medicine
		Evolution of Medicine as a Driver for Personalized Therapy Markets
	Collaboration Between the Industry and the Academia
	Opportunities and Challenges of Personalized Medicine
		Prospects and Limitations of Genetic Testing
		Genetic Testing and Concerns About Equality of Healthcare
		Pharmacotyping
	Comparative-Effectiveness Research and Personalized Medicine
	Medicine in the Year 2025
	Concluding Remarks About the Future of Personalized Medicine
	References
Index
                        

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