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TitleUnderstanding Thinking: Maps Models Meanings Goals Motivation and Neural Networks
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Total Pages284
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
A Brief History of Thinking
	The Search for the Truth
	The Importance of Agricultural Dependence
	Remote Causation & Troublesome Gods
	Agreed Explanations – to relieve the disabling anxiety of uncertainty.
	Illuminating the Darkness
	Two Early Beams of Light
	Plato – the pure light of reason.
	The Liberal Arts
	Aristotle’s Approach to Truth
	Science and Technology
	Bringing Down the Curtain
	Back into the Light
	Towards The Enlightenment
	The Scientific Method
	The Romantics -
	Grand Narratives
	Beyond Modernism
	What is Postmodernism?
	The Attempted Murder of Meaning
	Babies in the Bathwater – the subtle business of destruction and renewal.
	The Decline of Wisdom
	Group - Think
	Systemic Literacy
	The Tree of Knowledge has Biological Roots
Chapter 2
	Neural Networks
	The Fundamentals
	Excitation and Inhibition
What Is Going On In The Brain?
	Is The Brain Like a General-Purpose Computer?
	Plasticity in Neural Networks
	Grouping Things Together
	Things with Common Properties
	Classification, Generalisation and Abstraction
	Non-Equal Membership
	Metaphor, Simile & Analogy
	Sequence Sensitivity
How Do Neural Networks Register Associations?
	Post-Synaptic Changes
	Pre-Synaptic Changes
	Experience Trapping
	Factors in Brain Development
	Summary of Plasticity
	General-Purpose (GP) vs. Highly Task Specific
	Selective Sensitivity
	Relative Speed
	Size and Efficiency
	Emergent Properties vs. Explicit Rules
	Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up
	Precision vs. Ambiguity
	The Tip of the Iceberg
Making Meaning
	Natural Learning Machines - Experience vs. Rules
	Spatial Mapping - attaching meaning to places
	The Learning Curve
	Black Swans
	Stability, Reliability, Memory, Change and Learning
	Neural Networks Make Meaning; GP Computers Do Not.
	English Spelling
	The Educational Value of Rules and Organising Concepts
	Hard and Fluffy Standards
	Consolidating Experience
	Isolated vs. Associative and Updatable Memory
	The Pleasure of Learning
	The Modern Urban Landscape
	Relative Duality
	The Social Construction of Reality
	Social Groups
	Cultural Transmission
Back to Basics
	Framing – a question of context
	Evolved Innate Framing
	Essence and Substance
	Our Historical Prison and the Great Escape
	The Moral
	Freewill and Destiny
	Submit or Do Your Own Thing
Evolutionary Thinking Levels
	Attention Management and Priority Juggling
	Too Much Information
	Attention Control
	Making Sense
	Social Meaning
	Multiple Models
	Competing Packages
	Managing the Options
	Back to Basics - the Frame Problem
Who is in Control of Your Brain?
	Threats and Emotions
	The Autopilot
	Goal Setting
	The Multi-Headed Egos
	The Possibility of Change
	Mind and Body
	The Conscious Thinker
	The Conscious Conscience
	The Role of the Conscience
Chapter 4
Systems Thinking for Systemic Problems
	Modern Problems
	Thinking Is a Natural Activity
	Conscious Observation and Testing
	Understanding vs. Memory
	Static Linear Association
	Model Making
Graphical Thinking System
	Conditional Properties
	What about Concepts and Ideas?
	Graphical Thinking (GT) diagramming - general
	From the Big Picture to the Detail
	Representing Systems
	GT is to Thinking what Topology is to Geometry
	GT and Neural Networks
Wider Uses
	For Students
	For News Hounds and Journalists
	From Text to Understanding
	Policy Officers -
Model Making, Problem Solving and Thinking
	Building Blocks
	School-Style Problem Solving
	The Goals
	The Euclidian Method
	There Are Several Other Approaches to Proof
	Trial and Error
	Counter Examples
	Double Contradiction
	The legal (and theological) model
	Analysing Arguments vs. Exploring Deep Structures
	School Tools
	School Strategies
	Real -World Problem Solving
	A Generalised Problem-Solving Model
	How Does This Dynamic Approach Contrast With The Usual Critical Thinking Model?
Problems with Language
	Is (and Are)
	Direction of Causation
	Causes (and is the only cause)
	We Over-Generalise
	We Leave Out the Quantifiers and Qualifiers
	False Opposites
	We Leave Out Crucial Elements of an Idea:
	We Misuse what Linguists call Modal Operators:
	Model Mismatch – a hasty generalisation.
Common Manipulative Forms of Argument
	False Dichotomy
	Causation Errors
	Slippery Slope
	Begging the Question and Circular Argument
	Appeal to Traditional Models
	Discredit the Person
	Guilt by Association
	Knocking Down Straw Men
	Linear Language vs. Diagrams
	Hidden Agendas
Chapter 5
	The Possibility of Self-Managed Personal Change
	Functions of the Pre-conscious Mind
	1) It Looks After the Body, and its fundamental survival responses.
	2) It Gives Us our Experience of Space and Time:
	3) It Handles our Basic Emotional and Motivational Systems
	4) It Manages our Attention
	5) It Manages our Sense of Identity
	6) It Traps and Accumulates Experience
	Models, Meanings and Motivation
	Passive Perception
	Active Perception
	Updating Old Models
	7) It Manages Multiple Emotional Vectors
	Parts Integration
	Goal Setting
	Successful People
	Successful Projects - have the same structure.
	Vector Mapping
	Do We Create Our Own Universe?
	Internal or External Causes

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